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Cuban revolution

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kevin He

on 12 February 2015

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Transcript of Cuban revolution

Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 4
Reaction to the Moderates
Stage 3
The Moderate Phase
Thank you!
Historical context
Fulgencio Batista served his first term as president of Cuba from 1940 to 1944. He then seized absolute power with a military coup and canceled the following election in 1952. He quickly went from president to dictator. During his rule, he failed to tend to Cuba's two biggest problems, the high rate of unemployment and the poor water sanitation. He created an alliance with the United States for military and political support. Along with his relations to the US, Batista surrounded himself with gangs and cartels to boost Cuba’s economy.
Cuba (Modern Day)
Cuban Revolution
Does it fit the Anatomy of Revolution?
Stage 5
Radicals Seize Control
Crane Brinton
The Cuban revolution does not fit Crane Brinton's "Anatomy of Revolution"
Stage 6
A. Opposition (both foreign and domestic) Arises to Challenge the Radical Control
Comandante Sori Marin, who was nominally in charge of land reform, objected and fled, but was eventually executed when he returned to Cuba with arms and explosives, intending to overthrow the Castro government.
Bay of pigs:
Americans (the C.I.A.) sent troops to Cuba in an attempt to overthrow the Castro government.
Invasion failed miserably when President J.F Kennedy denied aerial and naval support.
1,400 Anti-Castro Cuban exiles troops were raised by the C.I.A.
Aerial support from the C.I.A completely failed to destroy the Cuban air force.
Stage 7
The Moderates Reaction
Stage 8
The Rise of a Strong Leader
A) The State is Economically Weak
The Old Regime Begins to Lose Control
Batista didn't make any attempts to change the high level of unemployment.
He did not try to improve any of the sanitary structures at all.
He let major American corporations and companies dominate Cuban revolution.
Forming lucrative links with gangs and cartels worsened the crime levels of Cuba.
B) The Central Government is Ineffective and Cannot Enforce Its Rules
Does not fit the Crane Brinton system because:
The first attempt (through the judicial system) of overthrowing the government was a failure.
As a dictator controlling his country with military, Batista had absolutely no problem enforcing his rules and laws on the Cuban populace.

C. New Ideas Circulate Which Challenge the Older Traditions

Stage three of the Crane Brinton analysis of revolution does not fit into the Cuban Revolution's development. Moderates are not present in any part. The old regime consisted of Fulgencio Batista's totalitarian government system, and the liberals consisted of the rebels led by the Castro brothers. There were no middlemen in between the conservatives and the liberals.
D. A Vocally Powerful and Influential Opposition Arises

Stage four of the Crane Brinton analysis of revolution does not fit into the Cuban Revolution's development either. Moderates are not present in any part. The old regime consisted of Fulgencio Batista's totalitarian government system, and the liberals consisted of the rebels led by the Castro brothers. There were no middlemen in between the conservatives and the liberals.
Background info:
Fidel Castro was the son of a wealthy plantation owner and attended a famous catholic school. He then went on to Havana University and graduated with a law degree.

But this not fit the Crane Brinton's model of revolution because:
Fidel Castro took the opportunity for power because he knew the general populace was angry at the government. He decided to attempt to seized power promising elections and democracy should he succeed. People preferred him more than Batista because of the inefficiency of the current government. He did not influence the people of Cuba in the same way as Robespierre did in the French revolution. The Cubans were not necessarily looking for radical change in their economic and political systems.







Does not fit the Crane Brinton theory because :
No new ideas were actually circulating through anywhere, since the general populace was not involved in the revolution at all.
The only change that was demanded was the government's corruption
A. The Old Social Elites Attempt to Reassert Their Privileges

B.Some Disaster Rallies the Forces in Opposition to the Revolution

Does not fit the Crane Brinton stages of revolution because:
Castro directly took arms after his petition failed.
No demands were made except the overthrow of the Castro government.
It was only Castro against the Batista government. There were no third or fourth parties to be rallied.
Once Castro and his rebels had attacked the barracks and failed, Batista was already going head to head with the revolution.
C. Some Short-Term Event Sparks a Conflict

Stage seven of the Crane Brinton analysis of revolution does not fit into the Cuban Revolution's development. Moderates are not present in any part. The old regime consisted of Fulgencio Batista's totalitarian government system, and the liberals consisted of the rebels led by the Castro brothers. There were no middlemen in between the conservatives and the liberals.
The Castro brothers and their followers strike first with an attack on military installations.
However, the Cuban army met with them with a much greater force and overpowered them.
This resulted in 9 rebel causalities and the capture of Fidel Castro and his brother, Raúl. Fidel was sentenced to 10 years in prison and his brother 13 years.
However, in 1955, under broad political pressure, the Batista government freed all political prisoners in Cuba. Fidel's Jesuit childhood teachers succeeded in persuading Batista to include Fidel and Raúl in the release.

D. Government is Too Divided and Weak to Suppress the Revolt

1953-1959
First stage of Final offensive:
Fidel Castro and his generals directed attacks on four fronts. Descending from the mountains with new weapons captured during the *Ofensiva and smuggled in by plane, Castro's forces won a series of tide-changing victories. Castro's major victory at Guisa, and the successful capture of several towns including Maffo, Contramaestre, and Central Oriente, brought the Cauto plains under his control.
*attack on mountain hideouts
A. The Radicals Take Control of the State and the Revolution
December 31 1958, the city of Santa Clara was captured by rebel forces which scared Batista to fleeing to the Dominican Republic.
His initial choice of president, Manuel Urrutia Lleó, took office on the 3rd of January.
B. The Radicals Initiate Sweeping Changes, Eliminating Old Institutions Completely

Radicals Reign of Terror 

C. Radicals Seek to Institutionalize and Spread their Ideologies

Castro also created a revolutionary militia to expand his power base among the former rebels and the supportive population.
-Castro also created the informant Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDRs). CDRs were tasked with keeping "vigilance against counter-revolutionary activity".
-Hundreds of Batista-era agents, policemen and soldiers were put on public trial, accused of human rights abuses, war crimes, murder and torture most were convicted of these crimes and executed by firing squad or long imprisonment sentences.
Laws were introduced to provide equality for black Cubans and greater rights for women, while there were attempts to improve communications, medical facilities, health, housing, and education.
In 1961, the government nationalized all religious property, expelling all members of church and declared itself an atheist country.
Stage 8 does not fit the Crane Briton anatomy of revolution because there no rise of a strong leader after the revolution lead by Fidel Castro, his brother and Che Guevara. They do not lose power so that another person comes to claim the government. Their reign is stable and governed carefully.
Castro government became communistic instead of democratic.
They formed an alliance with the soviet Union letting them install nuclear missile silos in Cuban which is only 90 miles from Florida. (Cuban missile crisis)
The Old Regime Finally Loses Control
In 1962, following the Cuban revolution, The United States placed an very strict embargo on exported Cuban goods. Ever since 1992, the United Nations yearly condemned the impact of the embargo. The involvement of the UN took the situation to a new level of importance. And, just last December, President Obama officially recognized Cuba as a country. While the US will not lift the embargo, it will be relaxed to allow import, export, and certain trade between the two.
Does not fit the Crane Brinton stages of revolution because:
Castro filed a petition for the change in government.
Batista never actually lost any kind of power, and so didn't need to try and reassert anything.
Once Castro and his rebels had attacked the barracks and failed, Batista was already going head to head with Castro.
Following the failed attack on the barracks, Batista did not feel threatened at all by the rebels, especially after capturing the Castro brothers.
Conclusion
The Cuban revolution absolutely does not fit the Crane Briton "anatomy of revolution."
There are no moderates at any point
Revolution was essentially a war because no negotiations were made, and no opportunity to give Batista a second chance was presented.
There were only two parties involved in the revolution, the conservatives and the liberals.
Even though Cuba is now run in a very different system, the government's structure remained with a absolute leader. (Dictatorship).
Because they were communism, they had ties to the Soviet Union that lead to the "Cuban missile crisis". (nuclear war)
Does not fit the Crane Brinton theory because :
No new ideas were actually circulating through anywhere, since the general populace was not involved in the revolution at all.
The only change that was demanded was the end of government corruption.

C. New Ideas Circulate Which Challenge the Older Traditions
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