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The Nervous System and Musclo-Skeletal Disorder

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Julissa Valdez

on 5 February 2016

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Transcript of The Nervous System and Musclo-Skeletal Disorder

The Nervous System and Musclo-Skeletal Disorder
-Estefany Martinez & Julissa Valdez
Whats a stroke?
Important Vocab to know:
Amputation: the removal of all or part of an extremity
Arthritis: joint (arthr) inflammation
(itis)
Anthroplasty: the surgical replacement of a joint.
Close/Simple
fracture: broken bone where skin is intact
Compound/Open fracture: broken bone where the skin has been pierced through.
Gangrene: a condition where there is death of the tissue
Hemiplegia: paralysis on one side of the body
Paralysis: loss of muscle function, sensation, or both.
Paraplegia: paralysis in the legs or lower trunk
Quadriplegia: paralysis in the arms, legs, and trunks.
Tetraplegia: "see quadriplegia"
The central nervous system
The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system.
The brain lives in the cranium and consists of many parts
spinal cord is in the vertebral column.
The peripheral nervous system
Has 12 pairs if cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
They conduct impulses between the brain and the head, neck, chest, and abdomen.
They conduct impulses for smell, vision, hearing, pain, touch, temperature and pressure.
Controls voluntary and involuntary muscles.
A stroke is a diease that affects the arteries that supply blood to the brain.

Risk factors
High Blood Pressure
Cigarette smoking; exposure to second-hand smoking
Heart disease
TIAś
Age 55 and older
Being over-weight
Lack of physical activity
Effects on a person
Loss of face, hand, arm, leg, or body control
Hemiplegia
Changing emotions
Dysphasia
slurred speech
impaired memory
Changes in sight, touch, movement, and thought
Parkinsonś Disease
A slow progressive disorder with no cure . movement is affected , people over the age of 50 are at risk. Signs and symtpoms get worse over time.
Signs and symptoms:
Tremor
Rigid or stiff muscles
Slow movements
Stooped posture or impaired balance
Mask like expression
Sclerosis
a chronic disease where the myelin in the brain and spinal cord is destroyed. Functions are impaired or lost, there is no cure.
Multiple Sclerosis:
Amyotrophic Lateral sclerosis
ALS is a disease that attacks the nerve cells that control voluntary muscles. It progresses rapidly and is faltal. Motor nerve cells in the brain, bainstem, spinal cord are affected. The cells stop sending messages to the muscle causing them to weaken and waste away.
Spinal Cord Injuries
Can permanently damage the nervos system.
Paralysis
is the loss of muscle function, sensation, or both and can occur.
Incomplete damage- some sensory and muscle function below the level of the injury remains.
Complete damage- no sensory or muscle function below the level of injury remains.
The higher the level of injury, the more functions are lost.
MUSCULO-SKELETAL DISORDERS
Arthritis: Joing inflammation. Pain, swelling and stiffness occurs in the affected joints.
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. Causes are: aging, being overweight, and joint injury.
Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic inflammarory disease. It causes joint pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function.
OSTEOPOROSIS
The bone becomes more porous and brittle. Bones are fragile and can break esily.
At risk:
Older People
Women after menopause
Ethnic groups
People who are thin/have small frames
Tabacco and alcohol users
FRACTURES
A fracture is a broken bone.
Closed fracture- bone is broken but skin is intact
Open fracture- broken bone has come through the skin
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