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Answers of 1848 Germany

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by

Elisabetta Paoli

on 9 March 2015

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Transcript of Answers of 1848 Germany

1848 Revolution in the GERMAN STATES
The Revolutions of 1848
The Causes
- LIBERALISM: Middle classes wanted:
liberal reforms
political representation
abolition of
.....
- NATIONAL UNITY
38
independent states


The Impact of Revolution
- February 1848 following the French, revolution BY MIDDLE CLASS spread to small south
-west
states
- Not armed risings but
meetings


and
demonstrations
- Middle class wanted to collaborate with their
Prince
The Frankfurt Parliament
- 31st March - 574 representatives = preparatpry parliament =
Vorparlament
=1 representative every
50.000
inhabitants, "economically independent"
Problems faced by the Frankfurt parliament
- Little representative= residence and
economic
qualification= moderate and
liberal
- A new constitution = that did not conflict with
state laws.
= very difficult
- Archduke John =
Imperial Regent

for
Provvisional
government
- territorial extent? German-speaking population? Austrian Empire? Czechs and Poles?
-
Gross...
plan including Austria?
-
Klein...
led by Prussia without Austria
Constitution
March 1849
- Constitutional monarchy

- 2
houses
of parliament
- lower house:
elected
members
- upper house: reigning monarchs and
.....
- 290 vs 240 abstentions = Prussian king =
- FEDERICK WILLIAM
King
OF GERMANY



1848 REVOLUTION IN
PRUSSIA
SUCCESS
- 18th March 1848
Federick Willia
m accepted idea of a new German constitution
- troops fired on
cheering crowds
= riots and barricades =
300
rioters killed = King forced to support rioters and
liberal
reforms

- King joined his loyal army in
Potsdam
, riots and demonstrations in Berlin were suppressed by
army

- Parliament met in May 1848 and abolished
fuedal privileges
FAILURE
- HABSBURG SUCCESS IN AUSTRIA
=
Frankfurt
of Prussian parliament
- Federick William = new constitution = LIberalism and
absolutism
: monarch's divine right to rule
- total control of
army
- Prussia accepts new
constitution

The failure of the revolutions in Germany
- April 1849 Federick William of Prussia refused the crown offered by Frankfurt
Parliament
- Bavaria, Saxony, Hannover refused the German
constitution
- Parliament driven out of Frankfurt by city government and went to
.....
- Parliament members dispersed by
Federick Wiiliam's
soldiers in June 1849


The revolt was brutally sudued by the end of October
The End of the Revolution
- In December 1848 Emperor Ferdinand abdicated
in favour of his nephew
.Frances Joseph
, who
believed in absolute monarchism

- In March 1849 Charles Albert of Piedmont was defeated again at
.Novara
- In April 1849 Hungary deposed the
.Habsburg
dynasty and declared itself totally independent
- With the help of Russia, the
.Austrian .
army finally defeated the Magyars in August 1849
- Venice capitulated also in
August
1849
Reasons for the defeat of the revolution:
army
revolutionaries not
united
(middle class vs. workers)
tension btwn different types of
nationalisms
peasants
not interested in revolutions .' . little
mass
support
In Italy only
Piedmont
supported Lombardy,
Pius IX
condemned anti- Habsburg rising
News of the defeat of French radicals during June Days gave the
Austrian
army the confidence to crush the
Prague
rising.
- May 1848 Parliament
met in
Frankfurt .
Full transcript