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what is groundwater

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camy dicarlo

on 20 March 2015

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Transcript of what is groundwater

Groundwater
what is groundwater?
ground water is water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock
ground water is 96% of all the earths pure water
storage
it is held in spaces and cracks in porous rock under the ground
porous means that it has a lot of spaces and cracks
but to hold water the rock must be permeable
a perched water table happens when a layer of impermeable rock lies above a ground water reservoir and water collects above it
movement
ground water moves downhill at a rate of 100m per day to 0.5m in 10 years
it eventually comes out of the ground as a spring, enter a lake or stream, or join an underground stream flowing through a cave
cone of depression happens when people regularly pump water from a well lowering the height of the water table around it
a recharge zone is a area on the lands surface that resupplies ground water
water cycle
10-20 trillion liters of water fall on the United States each day
some of the water runs into streams, makes puddles, or evaporates into the air, but some soaks into the ground
it is absorbed by the plants and they release some of it into the air through leaves by transpiration
the rest filters into the ground and flows down until it reaches a depth where water fills all the spaces between soil and rock particles and becomes groundwater
the water table
the water table is the surface of the groundwater reservoir
the water table's surface is not flat, it can vary with the rock and the availability of surface water
it follows the contours of the land, so it rises under hills and drops under valleys
springs are where the water table meets the ground's surface
the water table's height changes with the seasons and is higher in springtime when there is a lot of rain and melting snow
the inflow of water to supply a groundwater reservoir is called recharging
groundwater chemistry
although groundwater may look pure, it contains many dissolved minerals
the amount of dissolved minerals in groundwater can be measured and is called the hardness of the water
potable water with lots of dissolved minerals is called hard water
soft water is low in calcium and magnesium compounds
minerals in hard water can be removed by water softening or through special filters called demineralizers
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