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Persuasive Techniques in Arguments
Transcript of Persuasive Techniques in Arguments
Everything Is an Argument
Everything in our modern world sends a message.
Every time you put a message out in the world you are offering your opinion-or your viewpoint.
Someone else has a different viewpoint, so therefore, a different opinion.
a message with multiple viewpoints, facts or opinions
We want people to read/see/hear our message--and agree with our opinion.
We do this through PERSUASION.
the act of getting someone to agree with your opinion
Credibility--establish ourselves as trustworthy and believable
Emotions--appealing to someone's feelings
Logic--use facts and solid reasoning
Rhetorical strategies are easily identified in advertising.
How does this poster appeal to both pathos and logos?
tools to appeal to pathos
1. emotionally loaded language: specific word choice that evokes strong emotions in the audience
2. emotional narratives: stories that evoke strong emotions in the audience
3. imagery: descriptive details and vivid language that create mental images for the audience
Tools to Appeal to LOgos
1. facts and statistics
Ex. 63 % of college students in Illinois will graduate within 6 years.
2. if/ then statements: statements of logical cause and effect
Ex. If you cut class, then you may miss important information needed to pass the test.
3. commonly held beliefs: something most reasonable people accept as true
Ex.The earth is round; Very few people make it to the NBA.
4. relevant expert testimony
Ex. A dermatologist (not a celebrity) explaining the benefits of an acne medication.
Tools to Appeal to Ethos
1. Use accurate information from credible, reliable sources. Cite your sources correctly.
2. Accurately address and refute counterclaims.
3. Be logical and not overly emotional.
4. Establish common ground with your audience.
5. Show knowledge of and commitment to the subject and audience.
6. Establish a personal connection to the subject and to the audience.
How is ethos used in this Nike ad with tennis star Serena Williams? pathos? logos?
Aristotle's three modes of persuasion (rhetoric)
Other persuasive techniques...
Cause and Effect
Questions that don't require an answer or are only asked for effect.
Ex. Do we want our children growing up in a world where they are threatened with violence on every street corner?
A claim that there's a cause and effect relationship when really there are other factors to be considered.
The new additive to fuel makes your car go so much further.
Making sweeping statements about a whole group, based on only one or two members of that group.
Ex. All teenagers steal and can't be trusted.
Use puns, irony, sarcasm, satire, and jokes to dismiss opposing views, providing a more engaging and friendly tone.
Ex. "Totally Artraged" as a pun on "Totally Outraged" when talking about controversial art
Can be used alone or with an article
Alliteration and Assonance
Informal, everyday, conversational
"That grossed me out."
"we", "our", "us" and "them"
"People like you and me don't want to see this happen."
Showing that opposing views are foolish, dangerous, uncaring, or deceitful.
CAREFUL: Can be offensive or alienate an audience.
"Town hall? 'Clown hall' if we consider the Mayor's latest comments."
technical language--makes you sound like an expert
"period of economic adjustment"
"interruption of economic expansion"
emotional meaning associated with a word
slaughter vs. kill
health issue vs. health crisis
removes emotion from the issue--makes it sound reasonable/rational
"If we consider the situation in emergency wards, with increasingly low staff retention rates, there are concerns about the capacity of hospitals to maintain adequate doctor to patient ratios."
imagery, hyperbole, personification, metaphor, simile, etc.
Australia is a fabric woven of many colors.
Citizenship was thrown around like confetti.
adds emphasis to major points and makes them more memorable
Sydney's slippery slide (alliteration)
The elite meet and greet (assonance)
Argument and Persuasive Techniques