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Defining Comprehension Strategies and Instructional Strategi
Transcript of Defining Comprehension Strategies and Instructional Strategi
Instructional strategies used to promote comprehension:
1. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: STW (SEE/THINK/WONDER) – STW help learners to focus their attention to take a closer look and to intently make observation with the sole purpose of promoting greater understanding, resonable interpretations, and exspanded curiosity (Ritchhart, Church, & Morrison, 2011).
2. MONITORING COMPREHENSION – Students know and understand when to utilze the appropriate tools with the purpose to comprehend text (Laureate Education, 2014i)
MONITORING COMPREHENSION (Laureate Education, 2014i)
1. Regulating – students are aware of the purpose for reading
2. Checking – by applying self-questioning, student monitors comprehension
3. Repairing – when misunderstanding of the text occur the student makes choices to correct their thinking by re-read the text, look back into text, or read text aloud
The role of teachers of intermediate literacy learners is to help support readers by developing their ability to think about their their thinking and the ability to comprehend text.
Our intermediate students need to understand who they are as literacy learners and it is our responsibility to help them develop student metacognition, which is defined as thinking about your own thinking (Laureate Education, 2014i).
GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: STW (SEE/THINK/WONDER)
The use of STW as a instructional comprehension strategy helps expand and broaden students’ thinking (Ritchhart, Church, & Morrison, 2011).
Students use a STW graphic organizer to compete the following:
SEE – students record what they notice
THINK – students record what they think is going on
WONDER – students record what they are now wondering based on what they have seen and have been thinking
SHARE THE THINKING – students share their thinking at each step and this promotes engagement in the text and it results in richer discussions.
To sucessfully address the needs of literacy learners in grades 4-6, it is imperative to do two things:
1. Implement instructional strategies that foster comprehension
2. Provide students with opportunities to master strategies that will assist them in text comprehension.
When students work collaborativly in groups is it aids them in their comprehension because they are given the chance to hold discussions about texts, question each other’s thinking, and helps the students to improve knowledge from the text in a group setting (Laureate Education, 2014g).
QAR (Question-Answer Relationships)
The question–answer relationship (QAR) strategy aids learners in understanding the varying types of questions. Students learn that the answers to some questions are present in the text, that some answers are going to require the reader to "Think and Search," and that some answers can only be generated "On My Own," students must be able to understand that it is imperative for them to they consider the type of question before providing an answer (Reading Rocket, n.d.).
According to research students who are explicitly taught to understand the question-answer relationships have better comprehension and question-answering behavior (Reutzel & Cooter, 2016)
The QAR strategy not only can be used to assist students with thinking about the text , but it can also be used to help them utilize higher-order thinking skills (Raphael & Au, 2005).
Accomplished teachers attend to both cognitive and affective aspects of reading development in order to help their students. The factors of both aspects inform comprehension because they operate in relation to one another (Afflerbach, Cho, Crassas, & Doyle, 2013).
(Hollenbeck and Saternus, 2013).
Lesson: Demonstrating Comprehension Through Journal Writing with the use of 1939 Newbery Honor chapter book Mr. Popper's Penguins (ReadWriteThink, n.d.).
Students are asked to complete a journal entry pulling information form the text and their own personal experiences. Journals provide students with a low stress writing assignment which allow students to combine their thoughts, emotions, and point of view into a written response. What I also like about this lesson, is that fact that it takes into account the connection between reading and writing.
Comprehension Strategy in Lesson – This lesson puts theory to practice by allow students to make personal connections to the text to aid in reading comprehension. When students are asked to make connection between themselves and the setting, characters, emotions, and ideas presented in what they read it fosters comprehension (ReadWriteThink, n.d.).
Instructional Strategy in Lesson – Think aloud
Specific Considerations to address the needs of diverse learners – graphic organizers with prompts to assist low learners, chart paper assists visual learners, and varied forms of questioning (blooms)
Differentiating between comprehension strategies and instructional strategies?
Strategies that are used by the students to help them have a better understanding of what they are reading
Instructional strategies are research-based strategies used by teachers to assist students develop comprehension strategies
Afflerbach, P., Cho, B.-Y., Kim, J.-Y., Crassas, M. E., & Doyle, B. (2013). Reading: What else matters besides strategies and skills?The Reading Teacher, 66(6), 440–448.
Demonstrating Comprehension Through Journal Writing - ReadWriteThink. (n.d.). Retrieved May 17, 2016, from http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/demonstrating-comprehension-through-journal-313.html?tab=1#tabs
International Reading Association (IRA) and National Council of Teachers of English. (2014a).ReadWriteThink. Retrieved from http://www.readwritethink.org/search/?grade=13&resource_type=6&learning_objective=8
Laureate Education (Producer). (2014g). Converstaions with Ray Reutzel: Supporting comprehension [Audio file] Baltimore, MD: Author.
Laureate Education (Producer). (2014i). Metacogntion: Thinking about thinking [Multimedia File]. Baltimore, MD: Author. Retrieved from the Walden Library Databases.
Reutzel, D. R., & Cooter, R, D. (2015). Teaching children to read: The teacher makes the difference(7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Ritchhart, R., Church, M., & Morrison, K. (2011). Making thinking visible: How to promote engagement, understanding, and independence for all learners. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
EDUC 6707: Reading and Literacy Growth
Dr. Jeradi Cohen
May 20, 2016
• Motivation and engaged
• Epistemic beliefs
QAR's four question-answer relationships:
1. Right there questions, in which a questions that can be answered from the text.
2. Think and search questions, in which answers are gathered from multiple sections of the text, then put together to make meaning.
3. Author and me questions are the questions that are grounded in the information from the text but the student must relate it to their own background knowledge or experience.
4. On my own questions in which students use their schema to form their own opinions.
Good readers use several strategies as they read to gain understanding of a text. There is an important strategy that starts before the reading even takes place and continues through the reading is the use of schemas. To help the readers process new information, it is vital to activate background knowledge before, during, and after the reading (Hollenbeck and Saternus, 2013).
Hollenbeck and Saternus (2013), explain that visualzation requires the student to create images in their mind while reading, they use these images to support comprehension, aid recalling, and developing interpretations.
"Self efficacy plays an important role in students' reading development, and it is related to reading comprehension (Afflerbach, Cho, Kim, Crassas, and Doyle, 2013, p. 445)."
Building Self Efficacy:
Conferencing is an instructional strategy that allows teachers to meet with students one on one on a regular basis. Together the teacher and the student can create goals, implement reading logs, monitor progress, discuss, and observe ( Afflerbach, Cho, Kim, Crassas, and Doyle, 2013). Explicitly and frequent conversations provide guidance and encouragement need to build self efficacy.