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12 Steps to Enhancing Learning and Teaching

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Simon Glasson

on 4 April 2016

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Transcript of 12 Steps to Enhancing Learning and Teaching

Step 1: First Steps
12 steps to enhancing Learning & Teaching
Step 2: Marking and Feedback
Marking and making progress
Time Savers
Sharing the Load
Long Term Strategies
Step 3: Questioning
Why use questions?
Self audit
How to open closed questions
How to ask follow up questions
Hinge questioning
How to get good answers
Questioning for progress
Question pitfalls
Things to try
Learning outcomes
Questioning for AFL
Marking and Feedback
Learning Outcomes
12 steps to enhancing learning & teaching
Step 5: Key Questioning
The Key question can be thrown at the class at any point to establish how far along the learning journey of the lesson they are...

Step 6: Stretch and Challenge
Stretching their learning
High expectations
Socratic Questioning
Reflective Practice
Critical Thinking

Step 7: Gifted and Talented
Student led discussion
Get them debating
Additional Reading
Resources produced by students
Engaging with criteria
Make a proposal

Step 8: Matching
Why match?
Types of matching
Tips for matching
Encouraging independent learning
Step 9: Using data effectively
Data for the classroom
Data for your observations
Data to make progress

Step 10: Behaviour Management
Types of behaviour
Dealing with confrontation
Behaviour management tips
Step 11: Literacy
Whole school literacy
Verbal Communication
Step 12: Numeracy
What exactly is numeracy across the curriculum?
Numeracy around your teachers' classrooms
Numeracy tips

Outstanding Progress:
Rapid and sustained for almost all of the students.

In the room:
Share learning outcomes which are rooted in assessment criteria.
Learning outcomes based on where the students already are.
Make sure that assessment of last lesson has taken place.
Use mini-plenaries to assess progress towards the LO.
Be flexible - adapt the lesson to address misconceptions, etc.
Keep the students focused on what they are doing, why they are doing it and what success looks like.
Ensure questioning is challenging and matched using Bloom's.

Over time:
Mark regularly and use 'next steps'.
Use assessment and data to make sure you know who is below, on and above target - plan accordingly.
Lesson should be rooted in a level/grade context.
Learning - getting better - acquiring - developing must be at the heart of what you do and plan.

Outstanding Teaching:
Adapting excellent subject knowledge, plans are astute and flexible. Challenge is embedded based on accurate and systematic assessment. Strategies match individual needs. High level of engagement. Promotion of independence and resilience. Adults enthuse and motivate; high expectations for all. Knowledge is deepened and a range of skills are utilised, eg.. literacy, numeracy. Appropriate and regular home learning significantly contributes to learning.

Students want to join in - want to be successful - answer questions - ask questions - volunteer answers - relish rewards and want to show off their work - feel they are part of a team - collaborate - see the value of their activities - follow your instructions - want to be engaged - leave talking about their learning.

How can we get it?
Being consistent with rewards and consequences - being open to questions and dialogue - making clear what we are doing and why - making all topics engaging - laughing, smiling - admit mistakes - catching them being good - realising that we are all learning.

Range of strategies:
Questioning - modeling - self & peer assessment - group/pair/individual work - written/verbal/visual activities - creating - role play - exam practice.

Outstanding behaviour:
Rapid and sustained for all almost all students with excellent student engagement in lessons. Positive attitudes towards the teacher and each other.

The best way to change a child's behaviour is to change how we respond to them.
What we can do:
Get to know your students - find common ground - draw a line under each day - praise.

The angry student
is loud, argumentative, insolent and makes no effort to change.
We should:
not discuss issues with them openly in the lesson - speak to them quietly after the lesson - not argue with them - find out the cause behind the behaviour.

The loud and disruptive student
shouts across the classroom, makes inappropriate comments, makes a a song and dance about every issue and will disengage in lessons.
We should:
Sit them with a positive role model - ensure they understand the activity - quietly reinforce consequences - be consistent - reward when showing positive behaviour.

The leader
has the ability to draw the rest of the class into bad behaviour, can manipulate a situation and will sit back and watch the effects, will do enough to receive a basic consequence but stops before it escalates.
We should:
turn them into positive role models - reward for helpfulness - get them to issue consequences on your behalf.

Outstanding Assessment:
Marking and feedback are frequent and high quality. Teachers systematically check students' understanding throughout.

More on this in Step 4.

Marking and Making Progress (what the students do in response to your feedback):

You do not need to kill yourself in the process...

The Basics
1. Have a clear focus for your feedback. There is no need to correct every error. Select an area of knowledge or skill to focus on.
2. Identify What Went Well (WWW) and Even Better If (EBI) leading to Next Steps (NS).
3. Give the students a chance to respond to your feedback. Use a form such as the one below to encourage a learning conversation between you and the students:
Feed-back and feed-forward

EBI and Next Steps:

Student response:

Teacher response:

For outstanding marking and feedback:

1. Through questioning explore the wrong answers in depth: why is it wrong? - how could it be right? - what would make it better?

2. Enable students to become 'experts' on someone else's work. They assess it, give feedback and evaluate the response to the feedback using a speaking/writing frame established by you to match closely to criteria.
3. Sample Self-Review Writing Frame:

This sample has been inspired by...... (link to research)
The techniques I have used to create this sample are ..... (bullet point or list)
The most important part of this sample is......
I could improve/develop this sample further by......

Then include a list of specialist key words.
Time Savers:

1. Use stickers and stamps:
Verbal Feedback given (VFG) - Teacher Assessed (TA) - Peer Assessed (PA) - Self Assessed (SA)

2. Increase verbal discussion and active learning activities so that work in the 'copy books' is evidence of learning only, eg plenary responses.

3. Have a title that says 'Note Taking' or 'Class Notes' - it should be understood that this is not for marking or feedback but a learning tool.

4. Some work to be just graded/levelled.

5. Meaningful self and peer assessment.

6. Get students to record notes of verbal feedback given in their books, explain it back to you and then respond to it.

7. Do not mark 30 books - mark 5. Copy these - share them out and use them as models for self/peer assessment. Only use this occasionally.

Sharing the load:

Feedback can be verbal, written, given by you, another student or adult.

Assessment can be summative but formative assessment is what enables progress.
This engages students, forces them to act upon their targets.

1. Traffic Lights or smiley faces at the end of a piece of work to denote that a target/objective has been met.
2. Ranking activities - gallery (work placed on tables - students use post-sticks to say WWW and EBI) - X Factor (students are in groups of four and select the best piece of work between them. One person acts as the judge/coach to explain to the class why this is the best piece) - Nobel Prize etc. Get students judging the difference between their work and others to locate the best and justify why.
3. Peer/self assessment using rubrics of success criteria.
4. Students underline key aspects of their work that they feel respond to the lesson objectives before the book goes into marking.
5. Mind map added regularly to show progress and links during a topic.
6. Teacher grades piece of work, students use grade and criteria to annotate the piece of work for a peer.
7. Students to complete written Learning Log at the end of series of lessons to verbalise their learning and set targets:

Learning Log Examples:

My target for today was to... Ways I met this were... Although... Next time I need to... Today I learnt how to... I could also use this skill in... To make even more progress next time I should... Today my WWWs were... My EBIs were... Ways I can achieve my EBIs are... Solutions to being stuck might include... I achieved a grade/level... For... To move up to the next grade I need to... One thing I am proud of today is... I would like to get better at...

Long term:

Have a box of red or purple or green pens and highlighters on your desk - these make Self and Peer Assessment easy to see.

Have visual displays on your walls of level/grade criteria in student speak which are large enough to be read by students seated and can be referred to quickly.

Have posters reminding of them of PEA (Point, evidence, analyse)
What point do you want to make? School food is awful.
What evidence do you have to support that point? Five students got sick last week.
Why is that important? This will have an effect on students' learning and the school's overall performance...

Display speaking/writing frames so that students can quickly refer to these when responding to questions.
Have you ever asked yourself why you are asking a question?
Who are you asking and why? The ones who know? The ones who are misbehaving? Then ones who aren't listening? The one who will give you the wrong answer?

Why use questions?
Is it:
1. To check that the students are listening?
2. To engage the students' interest?
3. To challenge the students' understanding?
4. To see what they have remembered?
5. To change students' thinking?
6. To find the solution to a problem?
7. To help students to move through the thinking skills?

And which of these is the correct answer anyway?!

Self Audit:

Why not audit your questioning during the lesson?
You could use a video camera, phone, iPad or even a student.
This checklist could be useful:
1. Are the questions closed?
2. What makes an open question?
3. How is the questioning distributed?
4. How are wrong questions dealt with?
5. How are initial answers developed?

How to open closed questions?
An open question should not be able to answered with a simple 'yes' or 'no'. It should challenge the students to show understanding or different interpretations or perspectives, e.g.

CHANGE Is carbon a metal? TO Why is carbon not a metal?
CHANGE Is 23 prime? TO Why is 23 prime?
CHANGE Is a bat a mammal? TO Why is a bat a mammal and a penguin is not?
CHANGE Is orange a secondary colour? TO Why is orange a secondary colour?
How to ask follow up questions:

These questions are the ones that can make a massive difference between a satisfactory and good questioning session.

You can follow up with the same student or bounce these questions onto other members of the class OR you could plant these questions on students in the class and get them to do the asking...

What made you say that?
That is really interesting, what made you think of it that way?
Could you add some more detail to that?
Is there another way of looking at that?
What do you think of that answer?
What was the best bit of that answer?
Was there any part of that answer that could have been made a bit better?
Traditional questioning uses pose and pounce.
allows time for students to think and give better answers.
encourages students to respond and analyses the question in more detail.
What is a hinge question?

This is a check in understanding at a 'hinge-point' in the lesson, so-called because of two linked meanings:
1. It is the point where you move from key idea/activity/point on to another.
2. Understanding the content before the hinge is a prerequisite for the next chunk of learning.
this is a brief item of formative assessment which enables the teacher to know whether it is appropriate to move on, briefly recap or completely reteach a concept before moving on. This is what Dylan Wiliam calls the most important decision that a teacher has to make.

Dylan Wiliam notes that although hinge questions take time to generate, a good question will still be useful in twenty years’ time, because learners will still face the same difficulties they do now. He adds that “Most teachers find worksheets or lesson plans developed by other teachers to be of limited usefulness. However, high-quality questions seem to work across different schools, districts, countries, cultures, and even languages.”

This can also form a part of a technique called 'peer instruction' pioneered by Eric Mazur.
Using an example of question-based instruction he gives a brief explanation of thermal expansion (when metals heat up they expand). He then poses a multiple choice question that requires application of the concept;
Consider a metal plate with a hole in it. If you heat it uniformly what happens to it?
a. Increases
b. Stays the same
c. Decreases
He then guides students through a 4-step exercise:
1. Think silently about the question
2. Commit to an answer (in this case, by using clickers)
3. Find another 'student' who had a different answer and discuss the thinking behind each answer
4. Answer the question again.
Consider a metal plate with a hole in it. If you heat it uniformly what happens to it?
a. Increases
b. Stays the same
c. Decreases

How to get good answers:
This is a similar idea to hinge questions, in that the wrong answers are often the best ones. It is through these that we uncover misconceptions, unpick misunderstandings and can often demonstrate the best progress.

That is really interesting, what made you say that?
Okay, that was really useful - is there another way we can say it though?
A great start, what can we add to that?

Questioning for progress:
Rephrasing your Learning Objective as a question means that you can return to it at the end of the lesson and demonstrate progress through the students' answers. adjusting the question with reference to Bloom's taxonomy means that you can sop the lesson at any point and re-ask it to show how far you have come along.

Learning Objective (phrased as a question) - How and why has language changed over time?
Checkpoint questions:
What do you know already that we can 'bank'?
Can you list three ways in which language has changed?
Can you describe some features of a language change?
Can you give some reasons for this language change?
How and why has language changed over time?
What have we not thought of that could be relevant? What do you think were the most important aspects of today's learning?
Some more things to try:

Learning Objectives

RAG lessons objectives at any given point in the lesson (coloured cards, stand up/sit down, thumbs up or down)
Students pick out the key words from the lesson objectives
Levelled learning objectives
Students to identify the context of the lesson, big picture or apply the learning
Mini white boards to elicit key words followed by teacher questioning
AfL dice (see below) or 'Think, pair, share'
Students with staff write the lesson objectives for the next lesson
Students evaluate or justify their performance during the lesson or topic
Devise a key question an allow students to devise the steps to get there (tasks and outcomes)

Questioning for AfL

3 levelled questions from the learning objective
Plan key questions at points during the lesson
Randomising names strategies
Pose, pause, pounce, bounce or 1,2,3,4, time to wait a little more
Bouncing wrong answers, collating responses first or using hinge questions to rewind and scaffold learning
If this is the answer, what is the question
'No hands up' policy
Students write their own questions when given stems
Interview questions (provided or created as a class)

Marking and feedback

Get students to write targets
Use verbal response in class to level answers
Students know and share their target grades - what level is that answer?
Students can level their work and relate it to the success criteria
Students write down the verbal comment they were given
Students are given how, or can explain how to move to the next level/grade
Students can give verbal feedback in class to others
Have key pieces of work marked using detailed feedback in scheme of work
Teacher shows how to or models work

Learning outcomes:

WWW and EBI.
Peer assessment using given rubrics of success criteria.
Post-it notes for highlight/lowlight of the lesson.
Students agree criteria for assessment for assessment.
Highlight specifications or use traffic lighting (this can be dated to show progress over time).
Mind map added regularly to show progress and links during a topic.
Groups to judge grade or analyse performance.
KWHL grids.
Step 4: Assessment for Learning
The key question can be thrown at the individual to consider their own progress or how they are contributing...
We are 20 minutes into the lesson, how much more have you got to give?
How did you contribute to the class being closer to answering the key question?
Can you highlight some evidence in your book that shows you have a clue to the answer of the key question?
What can you add to your answer of the key question now that we are 30 minutes into the lesson?
We are only 10 minutes in - briefly, what do you think is the answer to the key question?
So, have you worked out the answer to the key question?
Stretching their learning

When thinking about your lesson one must consider if its pitched to provide sufficient challenge. This is not just for the gifted and talented but at all levels.

Is their work sufficiently demanding?
How close is it to what they already know?
Does it include conceptual and concrete material?
Is the language used at an appropriate level?

The ideal is that we pitch our lessons just beyond what we feel students are comfortable with. This means that students don't find it easy, but are spurred on to find new information.


This is a key factor in students progress. If you have ever been in a training session that never seems to end you know what I mean. You want to avoid big lulls which will give students the opportuniy to become disengaged. Think about:

Why am I using this activity?
Is there is a clear rationale behind the activity then the students will make progress.

What am I expecting from this lesson?
Will they be reading, writing, calculating, discussing?

What is the right amount of time for each activity?
Don't keep students waiting, keep transitions between sections of your lesson timely and smooth.
High Expectations

Never underestimate what having high expectations does for a student or class. Learning should be accessible to every student. Here are a few ways to stretch all the students in the room.

Students share opinions with you and each other.
Push them to explain what underpins it, probe for deeper understanding.
Always ask 'why?', and if they don't know press other students to see if they can.

Plan so that students build something for example:
An essay - a piece of drama - a presentation.rite

Formative Feedback:
Write a what went well and even better if.
Set learning questions as you mark and allow time for students to respond.
It is essential that you allow time for students to act upon your marking.

Success Criteria:
Make sure students know it.
Ensure that you convey that all students can achieve it.
If it is made explicit students will endeavour to achieve it.
Socratic Questioning

Socrates, appearing in writings from Plato, was seen to interrogate, draw out errors and assumptions in ancient Athenians. Socratic questioning does just that in your classroom.

Here are the four main areas of socratic questioning:

Conceptual Questioning
Questions that give birth to ideas (conceptual thinking).
That's interesting, could youn explain that a bit more?
How might that affect the situation?
What made you think of that idea? What if?

Ignorant Questioning
Playing dumb to elicit and encourage. What does that mean?
I don't understand can you start form the beginning?
I'm not sure I know - could someone help clarify?

Jigsaw Questions
Little questions that build to make a larger whole
What do you mean?
But, what if...
Does that always apply? How can you be certain?

Shock Questions
A shock to the traditional way of thinking.
Imagining if this was not the case, what then?
What if everything was turned on its head, what then?
Reflective Practice

If students are really going to be good at reflecting on and evaluating their work.
Students should be able to identify their individual 'what went wells' and 'even better ifs'.

Almost all activities that take place in your classroom should have some form of reflection and evaluation to allow students to know if they have made progress.

The more frequently students are involved in self reflection the better they will become at it. As the students become better at evaluation then it will eventually become second nature in their regular work.

Key Words for evaluation:

Appraise - Argue - Assess - Critique - Defend

Evaluate - Judge - Justify - Value - Prove

Critical Thinking

This involves students analysing their work and looking for ways to improve to improve it. This is really challenging for all students but in particular the lower ability.

This is certainly a skill that will stretch lower and middle ability students and will help them write and argue more creatively.

Once students have completed their work get them to comment on
the accuracy and precision of their writing or work.
"Did this person accurately get their point across?"
"How could you improve this?"

Self Critical
Once students have completed their work ask them to reread it critically.
You may wish to get the students to write a list of improvements that they would do next time.

Challenge and Debate
Get students to look through their work and every time they have expressed an argument or view, get them to come up with a counter argument.
Doing this will significantly increase a students ability to argue.
Student led discussion
Discussion that is led by the students as opposed o the teacher helps heighten students' thinking and discussion skills and allows them to drive the learning forward. To start with you could provide students with questions that they need to discuss in small groups - this takes the onus off you and enables students to develop their ideas together.

Instead of providing students with formulated questions you could also give them a frame, which they adapt to construct their own questions to ask their peers. These questions could be asked within small groups or to the class as a whole.

As students become more confident in constructing their own questions you could take the frame away, allowing students to create their own questions based on a topic or a piece of text.


Pick a student to complete the same work as everyone else; however, they need to complete their work on a large whiteboard or piece of poster paper at one side of the classroom. During the lesson students are free to go to the Mastermind and have a look at their work. They would discuss with the Mastermind how they achieved the answer that they had written on the board, and could look at the Mastermind's working out. This is a great way of showcasing excellent work to the rest of the class and raises their confidence by giving them the opportunity to talk about their work.
Additional reading
Wider reading is a great way of furthering the understanding of students in relation to a topic. Providing opportunities for additional reading also helps students to improve research and literacy skills as well as widening their reading experiences. This additional reading could come in the form of a novel, article, journal entry theoretical essay or teaxt book. Follow up activities could include class discussions, stater questions, literature reviews or letters to the editor.

Resources produced by students
Getting students to create resources for their peers is a great way of solidifying their knowledge and of including new and exciting activities that you would not have thought of in your lessons. These resources could be created within the lesson or for home learning.

These resources could take the form of information sheets, quote/evidence sheets, quizzes, games, writing frames, sentence stems, tip sheets, revision questions or visual prompts.

Engaging with criteria
Putting students in charge of the criteria facilitates a better understanding of it, and means that you are not doing as much talking at the front. Some ways of getting students to engage and take ownership with the criteria include:
Students translating key words form the criteria to create a 'student speak' version.
Students take an individual strand of the criteria, learning about it, and teaching their peers.
Mix and match of criteria elements and their descriptors.
Reading a model answer and constructing your won criteria based on what you see.

Get them debating

Debating is an important skill, one which students will utilise for the rest of their lives. Interrogating debates into your lesson allows for higher level thinking in relation to th topic, as well as giving students the opportunity to sharpen their oral skills.

Whats does the word 'debate' mean to you?
Write your response on a post-it note and place it on the board.
What skills do you think you would need to debate successfully?
Create a mind map.
Walk around the room, making notes.
The word 'motion' is used for the issue that is going to be discussed.
For eaxmple, the motion of a debate could be 'school uniform should be banned in schools'.
Teams have 15 minutes to prepare what they are going to say.
When a team says what their overall belief is in relation to a topic, they start by saying 'this house believes that...'
If you are on a team, you all need to argue for the same side of the argument. This means that sometimes you have to argue against what you believe.
The person in charge of the debate is called the chairperson.
The team that agrees with an idea is called the 'proposition' and the other team is called the 'opposition'.
The job of the first speaker is to define the motion.
Good debaters will chane their style many times during their speech. Changing pitch, speed, tone, eye contact

Make a proposal

Challenge the students by making them come up with a proposal for something. This could be given to them by the teacher or they could be asked to come up with it themselves.

Proposals could focus on something new of something that could be changed and improved. The proposal can be left up to students or scaffolded with a set of criteria.

Examples might be:
Come up with a proposal for encouraging re-cycling in Pakistan
Make a proposal for how we might reinterpret Romeo and Juliet for a Pakistani audience

Why match?

Not all learners are at the same level or learn at the same rate.
Learners have different interests when learning a subject.
If all learners wokr on the same activity at the same time, those who complete the activity more quickly have to wait for others to catch up.
Those who learn slowly may lose confidence if they feel they are holding the group back.
By providing a range of activities and taks you povide an opportunity for all learners to learn in a way and at a pace which suits them.

Types of matching - 1

Grouping students according to their abilities. This could work with mixed ability groups whereby the more able support the less able or you could group a particular group of learners to study something which would not be suitable for all e.g. a complex grammar point.

Give learners some choice in selecting activities/topics and wher possible link them to personal interests. Students might also choose according to a skill they want to practise e.g. speaking, reading, writing or listening.

Learning styles
Aim to cater to all needs and interests by varying your teaching methods. Some students respond better to/learn better with pictures, diagrams, demonstrates or video links whilst others prefer listening to audio clips and discussing. Finally, some students might like physical activity and moving around the room where possible.

Support can be provided in a number of ways.
1. Clear instructions given for each activity in a vraiety of ways e.g. verbally and in writing. students should always be caler about what they are expected to do.
2. Providing support materials/help sheets/writing frames where possible.
3. Work with individuals or small groups during group work to provide encouragement, feedback and help on a more personal basis. This could also involve another adult if prsent in the classroom.

Types of matching - 2

(VAK - Visually - auditory - kinetically). Learners learn differently and the teaching/learning methods need to suit those learning styles. It is essential to build variety in to what is taught to reflect and encourage different needs and interests. Each of the following can be varied within a lesson:
media - video/audio/written material/digital
class organisation - plenary/pair and small group work/individual work
materials - course book/handouts/pictures/newspaper and magazine articles)
activities - information gap/games/role play/gap filling
levels - easy work for confidence building followed by extension activities for higher levels
pace - chunk the lesson so that activities are manageable but can be extended if needed.

Everyone works with the same material/theme but activities are varied in difficulty (but not challenge) and matched to differing needs and abilities.
OR everyone starts with the same activity. Once a group or individual has finished they are given a supplementary/extension activity.

The same activity with differing results. Everyone is set the same activity but the activity can be carried out at different levels with differing outcomes and completed in different ways. This is easily done in written work, for example, writing a letter. In oral work, it can be achieved by setting a fairly open-ended activity and/or question which learners can develop according to their interests and ability.

Resources and texts
Different resources for individuals/groups. You can use different resources based on different activites and discuss with learners which they think is best suited to their learning style.
Tips for matching

1. Get to know your learners. Carry out an initial assessment and build a profile for each learner. This will help you meet individual needs and personalise their learning. Matching is based on effective and ongoing assessment.
2. Create an atmosphere conducive to learning. Learners need to understand what you want them to do and why. As well as learning aims and objectives it is essential that any activity i properly explained and so that they know what is expected of them.
3. Establish ground rules with your learners and recognise that it is okay that everyone world at a different pace.
4. Plan a variety of strategies to respond to individual needs. By becoming aware of individual differences, you can plan for these in advnace using matched questioning, pair or group woirk and a variety of resources.
5. Use Blooms' Taxonomy to vary the oring of your objectives and make them suitable to all learners in your class. Can you have more than one objective which will cater for all learners.

Listening activities
Play a recording to the whole class. Use a grid where they answer key questions with additional info for more able.

Reading activities
Modifying the text to suit the ability level. Provide grid of questions. Learners to give synonyms and anonyms for selected vocab.

Write sentences based on a model. Learners choose their own topic. Research new vocab for home learning.

Closed questioning leading to open-ended questions which requires follow up. Using pre-written models as a starter.

More tips....
Sentence starters - essay outlines - challenge cards (students can pull these out of a pack as extension activities).
Source work - clue cards (pointing student in the right direction) - glossary for challenging vocabulary
Encourage independent learning

Use the TASC Wheel to foster independent learning and to raise performance fo the students.
Data for your classroom

The data you will need on a day to day basis essentially falls down to your mark book and personal record keeping.

The important pieces of data to have at your fingertips are:
1. Base line data - either at the beginning of the year or from a cognitive test (CATS, etc). in other words, their starting point. This is very important in order to measure progress.
2. Where are they now - their most recent assessment data.
3. Where are they heading - their target.
4. Reading age. This is important for planning and matching materials.
5. Are their any special needs? This can be educational or medical.

Data for your observations

Data is now a big part of observations. Observers will use your class data to best judge the progress of your class over time. Although if you deliver a good lesson, it will be a good lesson, the data would be used to make judgements on if you are on the borderline between grades.

The best way to present your data for the observer is as a seting plan. This give the observer an overview of the room and also may prompt you to think if your children are in the best place to make progress.

Things to think about:
1. Look at if you have pockets of under achievement. It is no good if youhave groups toggheter who arec all under performing.
2. Do you have a group of high achievement?
3. If there are any, have you catered for any special needs?
Data to make progress
The best use of your data is to use it for intervention. Quality intervention will help your students to make progress.
There are four easy steps when thinking about your data:
1. Gather information.
2. Identify who you will be supporting.
3. Intervene - what you are going to do to support your students?
4. Measure the impact of your interventions. What progress do the identified students make as a result of your strategies?
You can use a tracking sheet to make a record of this impact on progress.

1. Small interventions make a big difference.
Strategies like moving a students place or talking with them at the end of the lesson. Also, setting them SMART targets can give them direction and focus.
2. Parent power. Speaking to the parents in order to make them part of the strategy has a noticeable impact on progress. Most parents want the best for their children.
3. Have subject intervention tracking.
4. Catch up clinics.
5. Positive feedback with 'next steps'. Send post cards home, call parents, stamps, positive praise - these all help to bring students along, especially if confidence is a problem.

Always review what interventions you are doig regularly. If it is nt working then revise the strategy accordingly. Look at the data - are the students improving? Make sure the data is current.


"I am the decisive element in the classroom. It is my personal approach that creates the climate. It is my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher I possess tremendous wer to make a child's life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humble or humour, hurt or heal. In all sets it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be exacerbated or de-escalated - a child humanised or de-humanised."
Ginott (1972)

Teaching is all about relationships. Are you interested in the lives of your students? Sometimes the best moments are during the changeovers, or breaks, or corridors. How did Arsenal do at the weekend? How did your party go? Did you have a nice birthday? Is your cold better?

Types of behaviour

Motives behind negative behaviour
1. Control - students use behaviour to control the moopd and pace of the lesson
2. Concentration - they are off task as they've lost focus
3. Revenge - they may be upset over something the teacher has said to them
4. Attention - linked to concentration
5. Esteem - showing off in from of their peers

Dealing with confrontation:
The following can provoke students into exhibiting bad behaviour:
Putting them on the spot - shouting loudly directly at them - embarrassing them - pointing in their direction - sarcasm - comparing their behaviour with others - threatening sanctions - mention previous poor behaviour - refusing them the right to reply - don't let things drop - arguing with them.

Fight or flight:
Never pick a verbal fight with a student. It disturbs the lesson. Also, it is entertainment which is better than any soap opera. Try a one to one conversation outside of the lesson. Removing the student form the confrontation is often the best way to diffuse it.

Behaviour management tips:
Tactically ignore the behaviour (within reason)
Non verbal privately understood signals
Proximity (have a quiet word rather than across the class)
Casual comment (Do they need space?)
Positive modelling - well done, great answer, etc.
Name, pause, direction - "Zara...gum, bin, thank you"
Partial agreement - "Maybe, but..."
Redirection - "What should you be doing"
Use a team approach - any disruption affects our teams ability to succeed and progress. Create a positive climate for learning
Plan your activities to suit all learner behaviours
Have starter activities ready on entry
Non-friend seating plans
Always mark regularly and give feedback
Be consistent and fair in use of sanctions
Controlled exit from lesson.
Whole School Literacy

Students have the right to be competent readers, writers and
All teachers have the responsibility to develop these life skills
in others.

Suggested strategies:
1. Faculty/subject plans. Eevery member of staff commits themselves to focusing on one aspect of literacy with one of their teaching grps. This is to ensure each teacher has a specified class that they can trial literacy elements with. A whole school map shows these groups and the teacher's chosen focus, allowing for the sharing of good practice, shared strategies, support where required, etc.
2. Literacy Fortnights. A fortnightly focus for the whole school. Every teacher, every classroom takes part in a variety o ways. There is a 'Literacy Minute' in staff briefing, supporting and inspiring colleagues, ideas for cross curricular lessons, competitions and challenges, updates on the school website/Facebook page, etc.
3. CPD and support.Twilight sessions for the whole staff delivered by a literacy co-ordinator.
4. Assessment and marking. Staff have a reposnsibility to provide effective feedback which will include comments on the quiality of written communication. Students would be expected to review the qulaity of their written work via self or peer evaluation. Staff reinforce key literacy skills in all lessons, regardless of the subject.

Whole-school strategies for Reading, Writing and Communication

The school should have a clear policy on presentation in relation to the submission of written work.
Dictionaries should be available in all subject areas.
Classrooms should ensure that relevant and useful displays are present to ensure that: key vocabulary - connectives - sentence stems.
Across the year groups in English lessons, students shuld study a range of different written forms, with a clear focus on text types, accurate grammar, organisation and spelling. In the higher year groups, students could be introduced more explicitly to the importance of context and pragmatics in written communication.
Teacher feedback will make clear expectations on quality of written communication.

The School Home Learning Policy for students in years 1 to 8 could include set reading for home learning on a rolling basis across all subject areas.
Across all year groups in English lessons students should read a wide range of texts and be actively taught a variety of reading strategies.
Sixth Form students could be sued to complete ghided reading with students.
students in all subjects should be encouraged to read in class regaularly.

Verbal Communication:
Questioning and discussion are a key part of effective teaching and should be used in lessons to reinforce and elucidate understanding. Students should be expected to answer questions in full sentences and make use of a range of connectives.
All staff should model excellence in spoken literacy when talkng with learners and focusing on oral work in class.
Encouraging students to read

To promote reading for pleasure.
Use literature to improve understanding and engagement in all subjects.

Story telling

Use story telling conventions to check and embed learning, as well as to heighten engagement.
Promote the use of figurative techniques, especially simile, metaphor and personification to encourage student to think about cross-curricular topics more deeply.
Encourage students oral confidence and inspire them to deelop a story telling style.
Improve listening skills (essetial for all subjects).
Recounting something in your own words embeds the knowledge.
It improves confidence and social interaction.

Parts of speech

See the sheet on the eight parts of speech.
What is numeracy across the curriculum?
Numeracy is LIFE SKILL...necessary to allow each of us to make informed choices and decisions in all aspects of out daily life.
The word math or numeracy can cause fear amongst teachers and students alike. It seems it is okay to regularly say "I can't do math" or "I don't need math" or "I was rubbish at math when I was at school" yet the same is not said about literacy.

What is numeracy?
Catching a train
Logic problems
Looking at shapes
Using spreadsheets
Problem solving
Putting things in order
Cooking a meal
Telling the time
Supermarket offers
Symbols codes
Compare and contrast
Planning a journey

Numeracy around your classroom

This include displays around the school. For students to accept numeracy and what it encompasses it is important to have references no matter how small. For example on the English noticeboard about Shakespeare and his plays you could add a post-it note which asks, 'a ticket to see Much Ado About Nothing is 5000 PKR for adults and 2500 PKR for children. How much will it cost two adults and their three children to see this play?'

Quick tips:

make it obvious. Say it is numeracy if you have done something.
Get students to make estimates.
Time, money and measures are quick and easy ways and everyone can access it.

If you have to measure anything, get the students to do it.
Get the students to draw accurately using rulers
Use time: timetables, time zones, journey times, etc.

What's the difference between....?
How much more/less...?
Divide the class in half/quarters, etc.
Estimate this...
What's the average...?
Can you see the pattern/sequence?
Compare these numbers/dates/times...
More ideas:
Get students to organise themselves into equal groups.
Students can calculate differences times/dates/quantities.
Use graphs t make visual comparisons even for things like emotions.
Get students to estimate time, distances, speeds and measures.
Use ruler/clock to measure distance or time.

Money - facts and figures form the country - telling the time - reading timetables
Social Studies:
Make the link between grid references and coordinates - facts and figures - using graphs - using timelines
Proportions - measuring things - fracions and percentages - golden ration in photography
Key signatures - timings - notes and fractions - venn diagrams to divide groups of instruments
Word counts - timelines of authors - use venn diagrams to show character relationships - use statistics to add weight to discussion points - try percentages
Estimate distances and times - calculating speed - measuring distances - using statistics - graphs and diagrams to monitor progress and performance in sport.

1. First Steps
2. Marking and feedback
3. Questioning
4. Assessment for Learning
5. Key Questioning
6. Stretch and Challenge
7. Gifted and Talented
8. Matching
9. Using Data Effectively
10. Behaviour Management
11. Literacy
12. Numeracy
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