Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Into to Developmental Psych/Prenatal Development and Birth

No description
by

Peter Baggetta

on 10 March 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Into to Developmental Psych/Prenatal Development and Birth

Prenatal and Birth
Approximately 266 days/38 weeks
from fertilization to birth
Three periods:
Germinal
Embryonic
Fetal
Stages of Prenatal Development
Zygote - fertilized egg
14 days
Grows rapidly through cell division
Implantation
Germinal Period
Embryo
Weeks 3 to 8
Cell differentiation
Major organs begin to develop

Embryonic Period
Fetus
Week 9 to birth
Very active and growing
5-6 months = viable

Fetal Period:

any agent with potential to cause birth defect or negative affect on cognitive, emotional or physical development
Dosage and duration
Genetic makeup
Environment - prenatal and postnatal
Teratogens
Maternal Diet: Obesity and Malnutrition

Maternal Age: Adolescents and +35

Race/SES: Non-Hispanic Black = 2 x fetal mortality rates/premature labor

Maternal Stress: Prolonged/severe

Prescription and non-prescription drugs

Illegal drugs

Tobacco - sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and ADHD

Environmental hazards - radiation and pollutants

Paternal Health and Age

Alcohol - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
majority of neurons before birth
but continue first 6 years

Plasticity = at birth 25% of weight, by 5 years = 90%

highly adaptable but more vulnerable
Final Thoughts:
1. What should be the role of government in determining the right to parent? Should there be government policies regarding who can parent and the number of children a parent can or should have? Should government mandate sterilization for welfare mothers, drug addicted mothers, developmentally delayed mothers and mothers with mental illnesses?

2. What are the benefits and risks of prenatal genetic manipulation? As medical technology advances should parents have the right or ability to choose characteristics of their children such as gender, height, eye color, etc.?

3. Should sperm and egg donors be identifiable or anonymous? What are the potential implications to donor and recipient of anonymity vs identified donors?
Brain Development
Breast
or Bottle
Post-Partum
Depression
Identifying At-Risk
Newborns
Factors Influencing the
Neonatal Environment
Risk and
Resilience
Newborns are routinely screened with the Apgar test:
Low Birth Weight (LBW):
born prematurely or to term but born weighing < 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds
Extremely LBW infants < 1,000 grams or 2 pounds, 3 ounces
Micropreemie infants < 800 grams or 1.75 pounds
LBW associated with:
Low SES
Ethnicity: African-American mothers x 2 likely to experience premature delivery and LBW
Smoking
Stress
Multiple births
LBW at-risk for:

neuro-behavioral problems
blindness and deafness
cerebral palsy
poor academic achievement
autism
respiratory problems
Interventions for LBW:
breast-feeding
kangaroo care (skin-to-skin contact)
massage therapy
Long-term outcomes for LBW infants depend upon:
biological condition, specifically health and neurological condition
quality of postnatal environment - early intervention programs to help parents learn to provide a growth-enhancing home environment
Baby blues = 60% new mothers report
relatively mild, quickly resolved state
tearful, moody, irritable, anxious, depressed

Postpartum depression – 1 in 10 new mothers
longer-lasting clinical depression
unresponsive, possibly hostile
tired, distracted, not fully engaged

Most affected women have histories of depression
additional life stresses and lack of social support increase risk



May affect development:
less secure attachment
violent behavior
predisposition to later depression
Most all major health organizations advocate for exclusive breast-feeding for the first 6 months of life

Health benefits include:
fewer ear infections and respiratory tract problems
stronger lung function
positive effects on immune system functioning and weight gain
Some infants who are exposed to and affected by risks recover from their deficiencies
Diamond and Amso (2008):
Nurturing Touch
little touch leads to:
grow more slowly
release less growth hormone
larger reactions to stress
more prone to depression
vulnerable to deficits in cognitive functions
nurturing touch (neonatal massages) leads to:
promoting optimal development
counteracting stressors
lower cortisol levels
increased PNS activity
better ability to modulate arousal
attend to subtle environmental cues
Outcomes of early risks depends on:
Quality of postnatal environment and genetics
Unit IX: Developmental
Psychology (7-9%)

Attachment and Relationships
Emotions, Motives, Personality
PsychoSocial Development
Cognitive Development
Thinking, Learning,
Language, Memory
Decision making and problem solving
Physical Development
Functions of the body
Biological Systems
Brain
Stability vs
Change

How much potential for change?
Do early traits/characteristics:
Remain stable?
Change little, somewhat, or greatly?

Continuity vs
Discontinuity

neither approach complete
interactionist?
hybrid trajectory - certain stages but gradual within each stage
Discontinuous Change
Continuous Change
step-like process
distinct and abrupt stages
each stage different from the last
smooth continuous path
new skills building on the previous
similar features as time goes by
Nature (Biological influences)
vs
Nurture (Environmental influences)

What do you think is most important, genetics or the environment, for height, language development, ability to speak French and social skills?
Far more than?
Somewhat more than?
Equally?
Nature
Nurture
nativist
innate
maturation
empiricist
tabula rasa
learning
Language acquisition - specified genetically or acquired through learning??
Move away from dualistic or dichotomous thinking
Dynamic fusion/interplay:
What is the interaction?
Contributes:
Nativist - environmental input insufficient
- Chomsky = "universal grammar" - language acquisition device (LAD)
- Pinker = human instinct wired by evolution
Empiricist - general learning methods
Contemporary View - interaction between genes and environment
- Bruner = social context and behavior of parents supports the LAD - LASS
Introduction to Lifespan Development
Learning Objectives:
State the areas of change that developmental psychologists study, and identify the major issues in developmental psychology
Discuss the course of prenatal development and the destructive impact of teratogens
Describe some abilities of the newborn
Describe the influence of social factors on attachment
Explain the maturation of cognitive abilities - Piaget
Compare and contrast models of moral developement (Kohlberg)
Discuss maturational challenges in adolescence
Explain how parenting styles influence development
Identify Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development
Discuss the characterisitics of emerging adulthood
Physical Development
Functions of the body
Biological Systems
Brain
Attachment and Relationships
Emotions, Motives, Personality
Social Development
Cognitive Development
Thinking, Learning,
Language, Memory
Decision making and problem solving
Three Areas of Change
Key Issues:
Nature (Biological influences)
and
Nurture (Environmental influences)
Stability vs
Change
How much potential for change?
Do early traits/characteristics:
Remain stable?
Change little, somewhat, or greatly?
Continuity vs
Discontinuity
Discontinuous Change
Continuous Change
step-like process
distinct and abrupt stages
each stage different from the last
smooth continuous path
new skills building on the previous
similar features as time goes by
Critical Periods
vs
Sensitive Periods
Critical Periods
Sensitive Periods
when an event has greatest consequence or effect
must occur during period for development to proceed normally
human brain plastic
malleable and better able to accommodate
Maturation:
biological growth processes
basic course of development
commonalities/universality
Experience:
adjusts growth processes
timing
Research Designs:
How people change and remain the same as they age?
Cross-sectional designs
Longitudinal designs
Sequential designs
Full transcript