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Biomolecules

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by

Rachel Whatley

on 17 September 2012

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Transcript of Biomolecules

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli By:Rachel Whatley Biomolecules Carbohydrates Structure Monosaccharide Produce energy in the form of ATP Glucose Fructose Deoxyribose Ribose Disaccaharide 2 Monosaccaharides joined together through dehydration Sucrose Lactose Sweet Polysaccharide Broken down by amylase Plants Starch Cellulose Animals Glycogen Long chains of sugar Starchy F
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s Ready energy Cellulose makes up the structure of plants Helps with cell to cell comunication F
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s Foods that are complex carbs inculde bananas, nuts, yams, and barley Carbohydrates are the body's main source of energy The glycemic index measures the level of glucose from carbohydrate consumption Lipids S
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e MONOMERS&POLYMERS Saturated Solid form
(animal fat) Single bond Unsaturated Liquid form
(plant oils) Double bond F
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s Long term energy source More energy Insulantion Protects vital organs F
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s Lipids on nutrition labels are listed as fats and cholesterol High levels of triglycerides can contribute to arteriosclerosis (narrowing and hardening of the arteries). It is impossible to survive without some form of lipid in one's diet. FATS,OILS,&WAXES CARBON HYDROGEN &OXYGEN CARBON-HYDROGEN-OXYGEN
1 - 2 - 1 Proteins Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis S
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e Proteins are made of amino acids, which are monomers F
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Collagen Bones Cartilage Tendons Keratin Hair Skin Nails Antibodies Fight off foreign invades in the immune system Insulin Regulates blood sugar Hemoglobin Transport iron through the blood F
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s Enzymes are proteins that
speed up activation energy.
Amylase is an enzyme that
speeds up the process of
the chemical breakdown of
food
Food sources of protein include meats,
eggs, milk, and fish Nucleic Acids S
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e Or ribose, for RNA Nucleotide F
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s Gives us our traits Tells the body how to make proteins F
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s James Watson and Francis Crick were the first to theorize that DNA was a double helix structure mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA carry out processes that are required to produce proteins
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