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Philosophy of Social Science and Educational Research

A summary of chapter 7 in Nel Noddings' "Philosophy of Education, 3rd ed."

Katie Aspin

on 20 October 2012

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Transcript of Philosophy of Social Science and Educational Research

Philosophy of Social Science and Educational Research By: Katie Aspin & Valerie Sanderson How does science grow? Educational Research A Debate Cooperative Learning Independent Learning Debate Question "Group work in a wide variety of forms is enormously popular in current educational theory...The underlying belief is that students learn from social interaction as much as or more than they do from individual manipulation of objects" (Noddings, 2012, p. 146-147). “If we value independence, if we are disturbed by the growing conformity of knowledge, of values, of attitudes, which our present system induces, then we may wish to set up conditions of learning which make for uniqueness, for self-direction, and for self-initiated learning.” - Carl Rogers Is cooperative learning more effective than independent learning? Why or why not? Amalgam of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods "If qualitative and quantitative modes, or parts of them, really are incommensurable in some important sense, their combination should yield a power that neither of them alone possesses" (Noddings, 2012, p. 141). Naturalistic paradigm 1. Theory-driven
2. Tests hypotheses
3. Aims for generalization Narrative research 1. Invites interpretation
2. Puts responsibility on readers & users of research
3. Encourages the construction of meaning for yourself Quantitative vs. Qualitative Methods "Naturalistic" social science vs. "Narrative" research Karl Popper: "It does not grow by gross accumulation but by a series of focused attempts to shake the various claims put forth" (Noddings, 2012, p. 133). Thomas Kuhn: "Science grows through revolutions" (Noddings, 2012, p. 136). Imre Lakatos: "Scientists are not usually so concerned with the acceptance or refutation of a particular hypothesis but rather with the effects of certain results on the parent theory currently guiding their research." (Noddings, 2012, p. 135). Question A recent survey report says that education has improved over the past five years - at least if we measure improvement by the percentage of academic courses students are taking. Is this claim falsifiable? Is it subject to interpretation? Question A) Many scholars today believe that memory and all mental processes are constructive; that is, every act of remembering is an act of construction and can thus be affected by present events and moods. Do you agree or disagree with this belief? B) How can psychoanalysis be protected if one side shows convincingly that many recovered memories are actually new constructions or amalgams of past (perhaps innocent) events and present constructs (i.e. recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse)? Question Are science and religion incommensurable? In what sense? Question What kinds of questions seem more appropriate for quantitative than for qualitative research? Why? Question What are the strengths of qualitative research? Question As a policymaker, what might you want to know about a large district's schools? As a parent, would your needs differ? How? Noddings, N. (2012). Philosophy of Social Science and Educational Research. Philosophy of Education (3rd ed.) (pp. 133-149). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. References Noddings, N. (1989). Theoretical and Practical Concerns about Small Groups in Mathematics. Elementary School Journal, 89(5), 607-623. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.roxy.nipissingu.ca/stable/pdfplus/1001725.pdf Stevens, R.J., & Slavin, R.E. (1995). The Cooperative Elementary School: Effects on Students' Achievement, Attitudes, and Social Relations. American Educational Research Journal, 32(2), 321-351. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.roxy.nipissingu.ca/stable/pdfplus/1163434.pdf?acceptTC=true Jackson, C (Producer). (2010). Does 'Group Work' Work? : Is It the Best Way for Children to Learn? [YouTube]. Available from http://www.youtube.com/user/tvoparents/videos?query=cooperative+learning Underwager, R. & Wakefield, H. (1993). A Paradigm Shift for Expert Witnesses. IPT Journal, 5(3). Retrieved from http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume5/j5_3_2.htm Hiemstra, R. (2003). More than three decades of self-directed learning: From whence have we come? Adult Learning, 14(4), 5-8. Retrieved from Merriam, S.B., Caffarella, R.S., & Baumgartner, L.M. (2007). Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Dandar, A (Producer). (2008). Self-Directed Learning as a Process [YouTube]. Available from www.youtube.com/watch?v=6lQQKJs_0yg&feature=plcp
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