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Copy of Kingdom Plantae: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

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Emily Fox

on 20 November 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Kingdom Plantae: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

What is a Gymnosperm Seeds What is an Angiosperm Gymnosperms have seeds that are exposed on the surface of cone scales

Some examples of gymnosperms include (cone bearing trees) :
and more

- gymnosperms also include: cycadophytes, and ginkgophytes - Gymnosperms are vascular plants that produce seeds, but however do not produce an outer fruit, or flower

- Have non- enclosed seeds

- The word 'Gymnosperm' actually means "naked seed" Seeds allow plants to reproduce sexually without needing water, they also provide protection against harsh environmental conditions

- seeds can be carried and dispersed across continents and can begin growing in new areas Kingdom Plantae: Gymnosperms
and Angiosperms Angiosperms are vascular plants that
produce seeds, and they also produce outer fruits and flowers

- seeds are enclosed in protective tissue

- commonly known as the 'flowering plants'

- comes from the Greek words angeion, meaning "vessel," and sperma, meaning "seed” Characteristics of Angiosperms Characteristics of Gymnosperms Gymnosperms do not have an outer covering or shell around their seeds.

A gymnosperm does not produce flowers

They are heterosporous

Gymnosperms produce cones - these seeds are contained in cones.

They do not bear fruits.

They spread to reproduce via wind pollination, seeds are also carried off by animals, etc.

Their characteristic thin, needle - like leaves are a special adaptation to the harshness of hot, dry, summers, cold winters, and moderate rainfall. The needles are covered by a hard waxy cuticle that helps the plant to retain moisture. Examples of Angiosperms Gymnosperm Adaptations - typically found in cool boreal and alpine ecosystems

- have the ability to photosynthesize whenever conditions are suitable (evergreen).

- They reproduce using their reproductive structures which are cones.

- They reproduce using pollination

- Many conifers are evergreen, which means they maintain their leaves throughout the year.

- Conifers often excel in harsh conditions such as hills or high mountain environments. - Angiosperms are able to grow in a variety of habitats. They can grow as trees, shrubs and bushes as well as herbs.

- Angiosperms have a distinctive underground root as well as aerial shoot system.

- have very well-developed conducting tissues.

- The leaves carry out photosynthesis and are covered with a waxy cuticle to avoid water evaporation from leaves.

- flowers - reproductive structures of angiosperms

- a few angiosperms have separate male and female plants Angiosperms can be fruit such as:
or any other fruit that the seed is covered by the fruit

Angiosperms can also be flowers such as:
and more

Non - coniferous trees such as:
birch Angiosperm Adaptations - Angiosperms reproduce using wind to transport their pollen, but also use other organisms (like insects, birds, and even bats-called pollinators) to move pollen from one plant to another.

- Fruits also disperse seeds with the help of animals Evolutionary changes The first angiosperms appeared on earth about 150 million years ago. They evolved originally from gymnosperms. Through the process of natural selection, each generation of gymnosperms would change. Now, about 90% of all plants on earth are angiosperms.

- Gymnosperms likely evolved in the late Carboniferous Period over 300 million years ago

- The earliest seedlike bodies were found in rocks of the Upper Devonian Series Impact of Climate Change on Organisms As the climate over millions of years changed, in response so have vascular plants. Natural selection occurred so that the advantageous traits were passed down to offspring to ensure survival. The resulting evolved plants are angiosperms. There are four groups within the Gymnosperms:

the cycads

the ginkgos

the gnetales

the conifers Division Coniferophyta (conifers)
Division Cycadophyta (cycads)
Division Ginkgophyta (ginkgo)
Division Gnetophyta (gnetae) Angiosperms are divided into two groups called:
monocots and dicots.

- Monocot flowers are in multiples of three and the leaves have parallel veins

- Dicots are in multiples of four and five and the veins in the leaves are netted. What is Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Plantae - the term plant is used to include organisms that share the following characteristics:

ability to synthesize carbohydrates by photosynthesis

presence of cellulose cell walls

alternation of generations in their life cycles

lack of mobility

Ranges from things like ferns and mosses all the way to plants that produce seeds and also plants that also produce flowers and fruits as well Specifically on Gymnosperms
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