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Answers of THE 1848 REVOLUTIONS: The economic and social causes
Transcript of Answers of THE 1848 REVOLUTIONS: The economic and social causes
Revolutions across Europe except in
revolutionaries had all
Europe caught a cold"
the French example started revolutions elsewhere
French revolutionaries' idea of
sovereignity of the people
spread across Europe
revolutions not just imitations
not all started in France: food riots in central Europe 1846-47 and insurrection in Sicily in Jan 1848 against reign of Naples
Did the Revolutions have
suffering from high food prices and unemployment
liberal and nationalist ideas
in Habsburg Empire:
Hungarians, Italians and Czechs claimed self-determination or full independance
a revolt within Austrian empire
eg. In the Russian Empire:
nationalist revolt did not spread
Why did revolutions
occur across most of
Europe in 1848?
nationalist ideas in the Austrian Empire
Economic and social problems
a) Long term problems
b) The economic crisis : 1845 -
a) Long Term problems
i) Overpopulation in the
shortage of land
peasants migrated to
in order to
Living conditions :
Concentration of discontent :
in capital cities
1848 Revolutions were URBAN
Revolutions took place in
Paris, Berlin (only in Hungary in the countryside).
iii) Class consciousness
Marxists historians :
historical change developed through class conflicts 1848 revolutions caused by effect of industrialisation on working class
Non Marxists historians:
why didn't the revolutions take place in Britain where working class consciousness was stongest?
iv) Disaffection of artisans
artisans felt threatened by
advance of mechanisation
down costs of production
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CAUSES
b) The economic crisis
means that Service providers can personalize their services and adapt to the users preferences, but at the same time users identities are kept confidential.
1. Economic and social problems
Why did the revolutions fail? Did they fail?
were there common causes of failure?
Did all the 1848 revolutions fail?
Agricultural crisis due to
peasants and urban masses
N.B. Worst conditions in
Production dropped because
consumers stopped spending on commodities
as British capital was withdrawn
bankruptcy and decline in
coal and metal
Discontent also among
1. Regimes unable to
2. easier to mobilise the masses
Challenge the axiom
1. No clear correlation between economic
2. 1847 harvest =
3. areas which suffered most in 1845-47=
the most revolutionary
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