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Answers of THE 1848 REVOLUTIONS: The economic and social causes

Check your answers to the economic and social causes of the 1848 Revolutions.
by

Elisabetta Paoli

on 2 December 2015

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Transcript of Answers of THE 1848 REVOLUTIONS: The economic and social causes

THE 1848 REVOLUTIONS
FONTS
1848 Revolutions
Revolutions across Europe except in
Britain
and
Russia
all successful
all failed
revolutionaries had all
grievances
and
demands
little cohesion
"France sneezed
Europe caught a cold"
meaning
the French example started revolutions elsewhere
true point
French revolutionaries' idea of
sovereignity of the people
spread across Europe
challenge axiom:
1.
revolutions not just imitations
2.
not all started in France: food riots in central Europe 1846-47 and insurrection in Sicily in Jan 1848 against reign of Naples
Did the Revolutions have
COMMON CAUSES?
1

poor classes:

suffering from high food prices and unemployment




2.
growing :
liberal and nationalist ideas
in Habsburg Empire:
Hungarians, Italians and Czechs claimed self-determination or full independance
Challenge the
axiom
Nationalist revolutions:
a revolt within Austrian empire
eg. In the Russian Empire:
nationalist revolt did not spread
Why did revolutions
occur across most of
Europe in 1848?
2.
nationalist ideas in the Austrian Empire
Economic and social problems
a) Long term problems

b) The economic crisis : 1845 -
1848


a) Long Term problems
i) Overpopulation in the
countryside
caused
famines
ii) Urbanisation
Due to
shortage of land
peasants migrated to
towns
in order to
find work
Living conditions :
atrocious
Diseases:
typhoid, cholera
Concentration of discontent :
in capital cities

1848 Revolutions were URBAN


Note:
Revolutions took place in
Paris, Berlin (only in Hungary in the countryside).
iii) Class consciousness
Marxists historians :
historical change developed through class conflicts 1848 revolutions caused by effect of industrialisation on working class
Note:
Non Marxists historians:
why didn't the revolutions take place in Britain where working class consciousness was stongest?
iv) Disaffection of artisans
artisans felt threatened by
mechanisation
advance of mechanisation
forced
down costs of production
made
hand products
expensive
An Overview
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CAUSES

b) The economic crisis
1845-1848
1- Causes
FOOD CRISIS
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1. Economic and social problems
INDUSTRIAL
CRISIS
Why did the revolutions fail? Did they fail?


Debatable:
1.
were there common causes of failure?
2.
Did all the 1848 revolutions fail?

FOOD CRISIS
Agricultural crisis due to
harvest failures
Food prices
rose

Effected mainly:
peasants and urban masses
N.B. Worst conditions in
Ireland
INDUSTRIAL CRISIS
Production dropped because
consumers stopped spending on commodities
unemployment
financial crisis
as British capital was withdrawn
bankruptcy and decline in
railway business
effect on
coal and metal
industries
Discontent also among
Middle class
Economic Crisis:
1. Regimes unable to
intervene effectively
2. easier to mobilise the masses
Main cause
Challenge the axiom
1. No clear correlation between economic
suffering
and
revolutionary activites

2. 1847 harvest =
quite good

3. areas which suffered most in 1845-47=
not
the most revolutionary


pages 62 -65
soon collapsed
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