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323-Environmental NGOs & Transnational Networks
Transcript of 323-Environmental NGOs & Transnational Networks
& Transnational Networks
Shannon Gibson, PhD
University of Southern California
Introduction to Non-State Actors
History of Environmentalism
Increased environmental concern
Environmentalists merging w/ student protests of the 1960s & 70s
US Earth Day, April 22nd 1970
"anti-systemic" environmentalism emerges in the 1970s/80s
Opposed state-militarism & growth-oriented development
Tactics - lifestyle vs. protest
Changing Political Contexts
Weakness or lack of will among states
Increase in international environmental regimes
Cleavages created by globalization
Rise in internet and communication technology
Explaining the Emergence
of Transnational Environmental Activism
Who do activists attempt to influence?
How do they do this?
Tactics & Discourses (Axelrod)
is a shared way of apprehending the world
. Embedded in language, it enables those who subscribe to it to interpret bits of information and put them together into coherent stories or accounts. Each discourse rests on
assumptions, judgments, and contentions
provide the basic terms
for analysis, debates, agreements, and disagreements.”
How I see the Environmental "Movement"
My Academic Research
A Tale of 3 Networks
Climate Action Network
Big name NGOs
Radicalized Climate Activism
Climate Justice Action (CJA)
partner with CJN
Climate Justice Now! (CJN)
discontent with CAN
system critical discourse
No central authority
No global voters
Where does legitimacy come from?
Opposition to the state
Promotion of democracy
Provide new governance models / fill gaps
Build international coalitions
How do NSAs vary?
level of organization
Conservation vs. Preservation
protect for future use
protect for nature's sake
reverence for "the wild"
maintain pristine ecosystems
Post- War Environmentalism
Radical Discourse & Tactics in Copenhagen