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323-Environmental NGOs & Transnational Networks
Transcript of 323-Environmental NGOs & Transnational Networks
& Transnational Networks
Shannon Gibson, PhD
University of Southern California
Introduction to Non-State Actors
NGOs in Theory???
Dates back to 18th century
Conservation = instrumental
Preservation = intrinsic
History of Environmentalism
Increased environmental concern
Environmentalists merging w/ student protests of the 1960s & 70s
US Earth Day, April 22nd 1970
"anti-systemic" environmentalism emerges in the 1970s/80s
Opposed state-militarism & growth-oriented development
Tactics - lifestyle vs. protest
Changing Political Contexts
Weakness or lack of will among states
Increase in international environmental regimes
Cleavages created by globalization
Rise in internet and communication technology
Explaining the Emergence
of Transnational Environmental Activism
Who do activists attempt to influence?
How do they do this?
Tactics & Discourses (Axelrod)
“A discourse is a shared way of apprehending the world. Embedded in language, it enables those who subscribe to it to interpret bits of information and put them together into coherent stories or accounts. Each discourse rests on assumptions, judgments, and contentions that provide the basic terms for analysis, debates, agreements, and disagreements”
How I see the Environmental "Movement"
My Academic Research
A Tale of 3 Networks
Climate Action Network
From Kyoto to Copenhagen?
Climate Justice Now!
Radicalized Climate Activism
Climate Justice Action
"Call to Climate Action"
No central authority
No global voters
Where does legitimacy come from?
Opposition to the state
Promotion of democracy
Provide new governance models / fill gaps
Build international coalitions