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Marnz Bulahan

on 5 September 2014

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The Early Days of Supervision and Evaluation
In the 1700s, education was not considered a professional discipline or field of study. Early towns in the United States turned to existing power structures, such as local government and the clergy, to hire teachers and make judgments about their teaching. Clergy were considered logical choices for this role because of their extensive education and presumed ability to guide religious instruction in schools (Tracy, 1995, p. 320).
- W.W Charter-
"Once upon a time the classroom teacher was required to provide school building, pupils, materials and instruction. Since those primitive days there has developed a department of school activity called administration whose primary function is to provide everything which will improve classroom teaching."
Supervision in the Colonial Period
The Period of Scientific Management
The latter part of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century were dominated by two competing views of education. One was embodied in the writings of John Dewey. He argued that schools should be organized in such a way that students can practice citizenship and further develop the ideals of democracy . Progressive ideas such as a student-centered education, connecting the classroom to the real world, differentiation based on student learning needs, and integration of content areas were espoused by Dewey as ways of bridging the gap between students' passive role as learners and the active role they would need to play as citizens.

The Period of Scientific Management
Purpose and Practices
Appraisal of Pupil Progress
The principal means of determining whether teachers lived up to expectations was to appraise pupil progress.The dates were fixed to the town such as the last Wednesday in every quarter, and it seems clear that the practice of informing the master before the visit was common.
Improvement of Teaching and Learning
methods of teaching should move people away from conditions of ignorance towards higher levels of civilization.

Early Ideas as LIMITATION


Lay Control: An Enduring Tradition
Schoolmaster were given detailed instruction and direction

Public catechizing of the school children by schoolmaster was required by the law

Teachers were subjected to supervision and determined by the governing board

Through out the colonies, supervision was by
lay assessment.
The Principle that government could control and supervise schools through management by public officials was enunciated in the famous
Massachusetts law of 1647.

The second view of education was embodied in the work of Frederick Taylor. Taking a scientific view of management, Taylor believed that measurement of specific behaviors of factory workers was perhaps the most powerful means to improve production. According to Taylor (1911), these principles could be applied to discrete tasks such as shoveling coal and to more systemic tasks such as the selection of workers, development of training programs, and processes for dividing labor.
Post–World War II
The Era of Clinical Supervision
Few innovations in the field of education spread as quickly as clinical supervision. Developed in the late 1950s and described in detail in books published in the late 1960s and early 1970s, clinical supervisory models spread like wildfire. By 1980, one study found that about 90 percent of school administrators used some type of clinical supervisory model (Bruce & Hoehn, 1980). The process involved a purposeful, symbiotic relationship between practitioner and resident, where observation and discussion drove both parties to higher levels of growth and effectiveness (Goldhammer, 1969, p. 54).
19th century education teaching was professionalized through out the efforts of Honace Mann and his contemporaries.
Mann, Carter, and Barnard believed that teaching school was not the same as keeping school, and that competent can be provided through a well-designed education.
The period immediately after World War II began with a swing away from the scientific approach to schooling. Rather than describing supervisory processes in terms of raw materials and products, the literature began to focus on the teacher as an
. Emphasis was placed on not only assisting the teacher to develop his or her unique skills, but also tending to his or her emotional needs.
Teacher Education and Professionalization
The first normal school in the United States was established at Lexington Massachusetts, in 1839, with Mann playing an active role.
Public Normal Schools were established for the training of teachers and the teachers' institute developed as a means of improving those already in teaching.
The contemporary structure of preservice and inservice education was rapidly developing.
The advance for profession was when teacher education became part of the university(Post Civil War Development)
The need for professional supervison
The superintendent as Supervisor
The organization of industry, with board of directors and executives, was brought out in school committee reports to show the need for superindendents.
Superintent's Job:
1. Classroom observation and teacher's meeting
2. Inspectors, advisors regarding the teacher's problem as their problems.
3. Shool Visitations
The school principal as Supervisor
"Head teachers" were appointed to keep an eye on discipline and come to aid of assistant teachers whenever the need arose. The Principal was frequently present at board meetings, reporting to the board on his school and advising them on organizational and instructional matters

The period immediately after World War II began with a swing away from the scientific approach to schooling. Rather than describing supervisory processes in terms of raw materials and products, the literature began to focus on the teacher as an
. Emphasis was placed on not only assisting the teacher to develop his or her unique skills, but also tending to his or her emotional needs.
The model that emerged from these efforts was published in a book by Goldhammer (1969) entitled Clinical Supervision:

Phase 1—Preobservation Conference: This phase was designed to provide a conceptual framework for the observation. During this phase, the teacher and supervisor planned the specifics of the observation.

Phase 2—Classroom Observation: During this phase, the supervisor observed the teacher using the framework articulated in Phase 1.

Phase 3—Analysis: Data from the observation was organized by the supervisor with the intent of helping teachers participate "in developing evaluations of their own teaching" (p. 63).

Phase 4—A Supervision Conference: The teacher and supervisor engaged in a dialogue about the data. The teacher was asked to reflect upon and explain his or her professional practice. This stage also could include providing "didactic assistance" (p. 70) to the teacher.

Phase 5—Analysis of the Analysis: The supervisor's "practice was examined with all of the rigor and for basically the same purposes that Teacher's professional behavior was analyzed theretofore" (p. 71).
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