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Virginia Henderson

Needs Theory
by

Harriet Dizon

on 11 March 2013

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Transcript of Virginia Henderson

"The Nightingale of Modern Nursing" Virginia Henderson Virginia Henderson Four Major Concepts 1897: Born in Kansas City, Missouri in November

1921: Diploma in Nursing from Army School of
Nursing at Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, D.C.

1923: Taught at Norfolk Protestant Hospital in Virginia

1932: Bachelors Degree at Teachers College, Columbia
University (Master's in 1934) and later joined the nursing faculty for the next 14 years

1939: Revised Bertha Harmer's Textbook of the Principles and Practice of Nursing, for its 4th edition; and later wrote the 5th edition, incorporating her personal definition of nursing. Her book is widely adopted by schools of nursing.

1953: Research associate at Yale University School of Nursing

1996 - Passed away on March 19 and inducted in the
ANA Hall of Fame "The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible" (Henderson, 1966). Henderson's Definition of Nursing 1. breathe normally
2. eat and drink adequately
3. eliminate body wastes
4. move and maintain desirable postures
5. sleep and rest
6. select suitable clothes—dress and undress
7. maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying the environment 14 Components Based on Human Needs 8. keep the body clean and well groomed and protect
the integument
9. avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others
10. communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions
11. worship according to one’s faith
12. work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment
13. play or participate in various forms of
recreation
14. learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that
leads to normal development and health and
use the available health facilities. 14 Components Based on Human Needs (cont'd) 1. Individual

2. Environment

3. Health

4. Nursing The Needs Theory 1. Individual Have basic needs that are component of health.
Requiring assistance to achieve health and independence or a peaceful death.
Mind and body are inseparable and interrelated.
Considers the biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual components.
The theory presents the patient as a sum of parts with biopsychosocial needs. 2. Environment Settings in which an individual learns unique pattern for living.
All external conditions and influences that affect life and development.
Individuals in relation to families
Minimally discusses the impact of the community on the individual and family.
Basic nursing care involves providing conditions under which the patient can perform the 14 activities unaided 3. Health Definition based on individual’s ability to function independently as outlined in the 14 components.
Nurses need to stress promotion of health and prevention and cure of disease.
Good health is a challenge -affected by age, cultural background, physical, and intellectual capacities, and emotional balance Is the individual’s ability to meet these needs independently. 4. Nursing Temporarily assisting an individual who lacks the necessary strength, will and knowledge to satisfy 1 or more of 14 basic needs.
Assists and supports the individual in life activities and the attainment of independence.
Nurse serves to make patient “complete” “whole", or "independent."
The nurse is expected to carry out physician’s therapeutic plan Individualized care is the result of the nurse’s creativity in planning for care.
“Nurse should have knowledge to practice individualized and human care and should be a scientific problem solver.”
In the Nature of Nursing Nurse role is,” to get inside the patient’s skin
and supplement his strength will or knowledge according to his needs
"Assisting individuals to gain independence in relation to the performance of activities contributing to health or its recovery" (Henderson, 1966). Background She emphasized the importance of increasing the patient’s independence so that progress after hospitalization would not be delayed (Henderson,1991)
She categorized nursing activities into 14 components, based on human needs.
She described the nurse's role as:
Substitutive (doing for the person),
Supplementary (helping the person), and
Complementary (working with the person), with the goal of helping the person become as independent as possible. Clarity Semantic
•Concepts are clearly defined and consistent with one another as outlined in Henderson’s 14 Components of Human Needs.
•Definition is general and explanation of theory is appropriate- easily understood; yet some concepts are vague and can be interpreted differently.
•All 14 concepts of Henderson’s “Needs Theory” are straightforward and direct.

Structural
•No structural form or diagram.
•All components of the theory interrelate to one another.
•Linear ideas- Main focus and goal of the theory is for the nurse to help the patient with the 14 components of human needs to the point where he/she can perform them unaided. Simplicity • 14 concepts contained in Henderson’s “Needs Theory”.
• Simple to understand as the concepts are written clearly.
• Concepts can be combined with others without losing theoretic meaning- works best with other theories to create a more holistic nursing approach.
• Concept of Henderson’s “Needs Theory” focuses on the nurse’s role in fostering the independence and health of a patient by conforming to the 14 basic needs. Generality •This theory is fairly general in the sense that
nurses can apply the concepts and utilize them
in their practice each day while promoting
independence and health (individual, family
and community health).
•Despite the theory being categorized as a
“Nursing Theory”, the concepts are very
general and broad; thus the theory can be
applied to several situations where an
individual is assisting a person or
group with health and
independence. Accessibility •The theory contains both abstract and concrete concepts.
•Abstract concepts (indirectly measurable) include: expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions; worship according to one’s faith; sense of accomplishment etc.
•Concrete concepts (directly measurable) include: breathing; eating and drinking; eliminating body wastes etc.
•Henderson’s theory is used in practice and the concepts are clinically relevant as they are focused on “Assisting individuals to gain independence in relation to the performance of activities contributing to health or its recovery.”
•No sub-concepts- very straightforward. Importance • Henderson’s theory is significant to nursing practice as its basis is to enhance the overall health and healing process of a patient, as well as enrich the overall nursing system.
• The basic assumption of this theory is that: the nurse will care for the patient (by utilizing the 14 components of basic human needs) until he/she is able to accomplish them independently.
• Client-centered approach to care.
• The theory is simple, straightforward and direct in its goal of fostering the basic human needs to promote health and independence of individuals. Case Study After listening to a wonderful presentation on the theorist, Virginia Henderson, you become impassioned and intrigued by her “Needs Theory” and decide to utilize her theory in clinical. You are currently placed on a Surgical Unit where you are tending to Mr. Smith, a 65-year-old male, who underwent a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. He is currently post-op day #1. During your initial assessment with Mr. Smith, you notice that the head-to-toe assessment incorporates three of the components found in Henderson’s theory. The three components are:

1)Eat and drink adequately
2)Breath normally
3)Eliminate body wastes.
4)Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.
5)Worship according to one’s faith.

a)2, 3 & 4
b)1, 2 & 3
c)1, 3 & 5
d)3, 4 & 5 Question #1 During your initial assessment with Mr. Smith, you notice that the head-to-toe assessment incorporates three of the components found in Henderson’s theory. The three components are:

1)Eat and drink adequately
2)Breath normally
3)Eliminate body wastes.
4)Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.
5)Worship according to one’s faith.

a)2, 3 & 4
b)1, 2 & 3
c)1, 3 & 5
d)3, 4 & 5 Question #1 Upon assessment, Mr. Smith states that he is unable to relax as he is feeling sore and uncomfortable. You assist him with moving him into a more comfortable position by placing pillows under his legs and back.

What component is being used in this situation?

a)Sleep and rest
b)Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.
c)Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions.
d)Move and maintain desirable postures. Question #2 Upon assessment, Mr. Smith states that he is unable to relax as he is feeling sore and uncomfortable. You assist him with moving him into a more comfortable position by placing pillows under his legs and back.

What component is being used in this situation?

a)Sleep and rest
b)Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.
c)Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions.
d)Move and maintain desirable postures. Question #2 References Halloran, E. (1996). Virginia Henderson and her timeless writings. Journal Of Advanced
Nursing, 23(1), 17-24. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.langara.bc.ca:2048/10.1111/j.1365-2648.1996.tb03130.x

Current Nursing (2012). Virginia Henderson's need theory. Retrived from: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Henderson.html

The American Nurses Association (2013). Virginia A. Henderson (1897-1996) 1996 Inductee. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/VirginiaAHenderson

Nursing Theory (2011). Virginia Henderson. Retrieved from: http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Virginia-Henderson.php Harriet Dizon & Stefanie Lam
Nursing 3225 - Section 1
March 11, 2013 What do you think of this theory?
Full transcript