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Early Literacy Presentation

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Scott McFarland

on 21 March 2017

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Transcript of Early Literacy Presentation

Comprehension strategies during reading:
Visualize (use your 5 senses)
Make an inference that use contextual clues and is realistic.
Summarize (most important idea or themes of text) using many of the vocabulary words from the text
Activate background knowledge (what do you already know?)
Make predictions (what do you think will happen next?)

reading comprehension strategies in the
primary years
Teaching strategies to enhance reading comprehension for all learners
Reading fluency and comprehension includes:
reading smoothly at an appropriate rate,
with expression,
use of appropriate phrasing,
repeating words and phrases with self-correction
punctuation use
making semantic connections
elements of Reading comprehension
Reading fluency and comprehension are strongly
with an
influential relationship.
Comprehension cannot occur without reading fluency skills
Reading fluency and rate can be used to assess a child’s development of comprehension, through timing reading and number of words read by the child, aiming for 90% accuracy (according to Fountas and Pinnell, 1996).

To read efficiently, students must connect with the text on a literal and inferential level, by reading fluently with expression and meaning making, with less focus on decoding individual words, punctuation and sentence structures.
Reading fluency and rate is used as one piece of evidence to assess a child’s development of comprehension. This assessment occurs by number of words read within a timed period, aiming for 90% accuracy (according to Fountas and Pinnell, 1996).

As teachers, we must scaffold and encourage reading comprehension amongst other skills and reading processes. This prepares and enables learners to build knowledge, understanding, reading and writing competencies.
Strategies can be employed by teachers to appropriately assist and build reading comprehension for individual, small and large groups of learners.
To read efficiently, students must
with the text,
reading fluently
with expression and
meaning making.
They shift focus from

decoding individual words, punctuation and sentence structures.
The 5 components of reading instruction include:
phonemic awareness

Children's reading experience is greatly impacted by their accuracy of reading, literal and inferential comprehension, and reading fluency.
Reading comprehension ability, in conjunction with fluency, accuracy and meaning making will influence a child's future ability to effectively read and write.
There are 5 key areas of the learning process children must utilize when reading:
Using cues to identify unknown words
Recognizing high frequency or sight words
Vocabulary or knowledge of word meaning
Learners have four explicit purposes when reading,
(according to Freebody and Luke, 1990)
1. Code breaker
2. Meaning maker
3. Text user
4. Text critic

purposes when reading
the reading learning process
reading instruction
What is reading comprehension?
Why should effective reading comprehension strategies be used?
Difficulty with reading comprehension by students can be due to a number of reasons:
read fluently without recall
read fluently without meaning making or connections
unable to read fluently with learning difficulty
unable to read fluently with developing reading skills,(focusing on sight words, in a disjointed style- early stages of literacy)
ineffective/lack of comprehension strategies
language and literacy difficulties (ESL, dyslexia etc)

“Parents often struggle with teaching reading comprehension
strategies due to the complexity of designing purposeful instruction.”
(Scharlach, 2008, p. 20).
Why is reading comprehension important?
THE role as teachers...
decreased reading comprehension reasons
The relationship of reading comprehension and fluency...
5 comprehension strategies
before reading
Explore text structure and features:
connect the text to everyday experiences
predict- topic, theme, characters, events, plot, vocabulary or language used
question (I wonder what... and prior knowledge or understanding established?)

During reading
Integrate semantic, syntactic and graphic cues during reading:
use strategies to solve words (decode words with visual information, semantics and syntax)
Monitor and correct (prediction and re-reading technique)
Fluency (read aloud with meaningful phrase and intonation to reflect understanding)

after reading
Recalling key ideas with specific vocab, themes or concepts of the text to generate and reflect understanding and meaning making:
personal response

Here is James Henry Trotter when he was about four years old. Up until this time, he has had a happy life, living peacefully with his mother and father in a beautiful house beside the sea. There were always plenty of other children for him to play with, and there was the sandy beach for him to run about on, and the ocean to paddle in. It was the perfect life for a small boy. Then, one day, James’s mother and father went to London to do some shopping, and there a terrible thing happened. Both of them suddenly got eaten up (in full daylight, mind you, and on a crowded street) by an enormous angry rhinoceros which had escaped from the London Zoo.
Learning Activity :

Can you visualize where James lived?
How do you know what a rhinoceros is?
Can you make an inference about what happened to James's parents?
Can you predict what happens next to James?
Where can you make a connection in this story?

Comprehension questions:

Picture his family house by the sea
African animal with grey skin and horn
They died
James went to live with Aunts Sponge and Spiker
I once was afraid of a rhino.
text to meaning
constructing independent comprehension
Reading enjoyment can be greatly influenced by reading fluency and comprehension. Motivation to read or enjoyment occurs through semantic connections with reading engagement.
Comprehension strategies should be used BEFORE, DURING and AFTER reading, for understanding and creation of semantic connections.
Dahl, R. 1961, James and the Giant Peach,
When we do these we are...
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