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MARS MODEL (Motivation)

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Paul Balwant

on 7 February 2018

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Transcript of MARS MODEL (Motivation)

Of Individual Behaviour
Attitudes, &




ituational Factors

Individual Behaviour
and Results

: A set of energetic forces that originate within and outside an employee that initiates work-related effort and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence.
What do you do?
How hard do you do it?
How long do you do it?
: Highly activated and pleasurable emotional, behavioural, and cognitive involvement in the work role.
Motivation & Engagement
Employee Ability
Aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task
As with personality, about half of the variation in ability levels is due to genetics
Cognitive Ability
Capabilities related to the acquisition and application of knowledge in problem solving

Cognitive Ability
One of the most widely used measures of cognitive ability is the
Wonderlic Personnel Test

50 questions in 12 minutes

A score of 20 is equivalent to an IQ of 100, which is average
A score of 10 indicates literacy
Wonderlic Personnel Test
Wonderlic Scores for Various Jobs
Cognitive Ability
Role Perceptions
How clearly people understand the job duties (roles) expected of them.

Benefits of clear role perceptions:
More accurate/efficient job performance
Better coordination with others
Higher motivation
Situational Factors
Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior
Constraints – time, budget, facilities, etc
Cues – e.g. signs of nearby hazards
Types of Individual Behaviour
Task performance
Organizational citizenship behaviour
Counterproductive work behaviour
Joining and staying with the organization
Maintaining work attendance
Question 1

Assume that you applied for a job and were asked to take a personality test.
How would you react?
Would you view the organization with which you were applying in a more or less favorable light? Why?
Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics

Personality traits
Nature vs. Nurture
Are you extraverted or introverted? How does that compare to your parents?
Do such similarities represent nature or nurture?
Nature vs. Nurture: Twin Studies
Scientists study identical twins reared apart in order to separate nature and nurture effects
This research suggests that between 35% and 49% of the variation in personality is due to genetics
While we could come up with thousands of adjectives, most of them would cluster around five general dimensions
We call these dimensions the “Big Five”
Question 2

Studies report that heredity has a strong influence on an individual’s personality. What are the implications of this influence in organizational settings?
Values in the Workplace
Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences
Value system -- hierarchy of values
Personality vs. values
From the list below, pick THREE (3) of these that represent the MOST important values to you personally.
From the remaining values, pick THREE (3) of these that represent the LEAST important values to you personally.
Values in the Workplace
Schwartz's Values
Value Congruence
Similarity of a person’s values hierarchy to another source
Person-organization values congruence
Espoused-enacted values congruence
Organization-community values congruence
In groups, read the case below and discuss the extent to which the company’s action in each case was ethical. Teams should be prepared to justify their evaluation using ethics principles.
A 16-year-old hired as an office administrator at a small import services company started posting her thoughts about the job on her Facebook site. After her first day, she wrote: “first day at work. omg!! So dull!!” Two days later, she complained “all i do is shred holepunch n scan paper!!! omg!” Two weeks later she added “im so totally bord!!!” These comments were intermixed with the other usual banter about her life. Her Facebook site did not mention the name of the company where she worked. Three weeks after being hired, the employee was called into the owner’s office, where he fired her for the comments on Facebook and then had her escorted from the building. The owner argues that these comments put the company in a bad light, and her “display of disrespect and dissatisfaction undermined the relationship and made it untenable.”
Tutorial Question
A federal government department has high levels of absenteeism among the office staff. The head of office administration argues that employees are misusing the company’s sick leave benefits. However, some of the mostly female staff members have explained that family responsibilities interfere with work. Using the MARS model, as well as your knowledge of evidence-based management, discuss some of the possible reasons for absenteeism here and how it might be reduced.

Self-Concept Defined
An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations
“Who am I?” and “How do I feel about myself?”
Compare perceived job with our perceived and ideal selves.
Includes three self-concept characteristics and four “selves” processes
Self-Concept Model: Three C's and Four Selves
Do you define yourself in terms of the university you attend? Why or why not? What are the implications of your answer for your university or college?
How can two people can see the same thing and interpret it differently?

What colour is the ocean?
In the picture on the right, which pillar is the largest/smallest?
What is Perception?
The process of receiving and interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment.
People base their actions/behaviour on the interpretation of reality that their perceptual system provides (not on reality itself).
Factors That Influence Perception
Relationships, Attitudes, and Behaviour Perceptions:
The Tattoo Game
Tattoos and piercings are a serious and fascinating aspect of human behaviour, culture and evolution, and have featured in one form or another across most civilizations throughout the history of human-kind.
In a games context the subject can produce lively and enlightening debate.
The Tattoo Game
This exercise will be used to highlight and challenge assumptions and pre-conceived judgment about people, class, background, stereotypes, etc.
Excellent exercise to explaining perception and perceptual biases.
Tattoo Game: Instructions 1 of 2
Form groups of 7-8 persons.
Each individual is required to take out a piece of paper.
Write down secretly on that piece of paper each whether you have any tattoos (that are not visible).
If you do have tattoos write down how many and briefly describe them.
If you do not have any tattoos, then state that you do not have any and describe a tattoo that you would like. (Even if you never wish to have one, simply choose a tattoo for fun: think chewing gum tattoos).
Please disguise your handwriting and everyone on the team should use the same color pen/pencil.
Tattoo Game: Instructions 2 of 2
Team members then fold their pieces of paper and put each into a container to prevent cheating.
Group members then take turns to pick one of the folded pieces of paper and guess who it belongs to.
If the paper belongs to your friend who you know well, then return the piece of paper into the container and choose a new one.
Team members should read out what's written on the paper and explain their thought process (which obviously raises points for comment and reaction during or after the guessing game).
If the person guesses correctly, the paper is removed, if not, it is placed back into the container.
Tattoo Game: Scoring
The point of the game is not the score or who wins, it is the speculation and guessing, and the ensuing discussion and reaction, particularly people's reactions when being matched incorrectly, and correctly, to particular tattoos.
For fun, award one point to yourself for each correct guess.
Basic Biases in Person Perception
The impressions we form of others are susceptible to a number of perceptual biases:
Primacy and recency effects
Reliance on central traits
Implicit personality theories
Selective perception
Question on Perceptual Bias
Discuss the occupational stereotypes that you hold of video-gamers, priests, truck drivers, bartenders, and bankers. How do you think these stereotypes have developed? Has an occupational stereotype ever caused you to commit a socially embarrassing error when meeting someone for the first time?
ATTRIBUTION: Perceiving Causes and Motives
Attribution is the process by which we assign causes or motives to explain people’s behaviour.
An important goal is to determine whether some behaviour is caused by dispositional or situational factors.
Attribution Cues
Does the person engage in the behaviour regularly and consistently? (Consistency cues).
Do most people engage in the behaviour, or is it unique to this person? (Consensus cues).
Does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations, or is it distinctive to one situation? (Distinctiveness cues).
Attribution Theory
Attribution in Action
Observers put information about consistency, consensus, and distinctiveness together to form attributions.
Consider three employees who are absent from work.
Attribution in Action
Smith is absent a lot, his co-workers are seldom absent, and he was absent a lot in his previous job.
Jones is absent a lot, her co-workers are also absent a lot, but she was almost never absent in her previous job.
Biases in Attribution
Although observers often operate in a rational, logical manner in forming attributions about behaviour, this does not mean that such attributions are always correct.
Attribution biases include:
Fundamental attribution error
Self-serving bias
Before explaining, let us consider a classroom demonstration.
“Questioner” (chosen before class began) will now quiz an “answerer” (to be chosen now).
Fundamental Attribution
Self-Serving Bias
Classroom Demonstration
Using the board/projector, have student volunteers cite some of their strengths and weaknesses and write them in two columns on the board.
What do we notice?
Person Perception in Interviews
The interview is one of the most common organizational selection devices.
A difficult setting to form accurate perceptions especially when the interview is unstructured.
Contrast Effects
Person Perception and
Performance Appraisal
Organizations often use subjective measures of employees’ performance provided by managers.
Subjective performance appraisal is susceptible to a number of perceptual biases already explained:

Other biases include:
Halo effect
Similar-to-me effect
Central tendency
Perceived Environment
Organizational Commitment
Emotions Defined, Dissonance, Labour, & Intelligence
Job Satisfaction
Workplace Stress
Emotions Defined
Psychological, behavioral, and physiological episodes that create a state of readiness.
Most emotions occur without our awareness
Types of Emotions
Cognitive Dissonance
Emotional experience caused by a perception that our beliefs, feelings, and behavior are incongruent.
Inconsistency generates emotions that motivate us to increase consistency.
Difficult to undo/change behavior
Instead, we reduce dissonance by changing our beliefs/feelings about the attitude object
Emotional Labour
Effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
Can lead to emotional dissonance.
Emotional Intelligence
A recent study reported that university instructors are frequently required to engage in emotional labor.
Identify the situations in which emotional labor is required for this job?
In your opinion, is emotional labor more troublesome for college instructors or for telephone operators working at an emergency service?
A person's evaluation of his or her job and work context
An appraisal of the perceived job characteristics, work environment, and emotional experience at work
The most popular measure of job satisfaction is the Job Descriptive Index (JDI).
Job Satisfaction Defined
EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction
Point >< Counterpoint
1. Think a job you have had, outside of family chores. [Working for a family business is okay.]

2. Next, list what you really liked about the job and what you disliked about the job.

3. Ask four volunteers to give their job titles and list 3 things they really liked/disliked about each job.

4. Discuss what managers or supervisors could do to increase the likes and decrease the dislikes.
“Happy Workers are Productive Workers”

Class exercise:
Brainstorm with students about situations where they knew workers/employees were unhappy with their company or their jobs, but still did a reasonably good job. You can even think about a particular course you disliked but still tried very hard.
Discuss why someone who is unhappy with his/her job might work hard at it and do good work.
Job Satisfaction Determinants
Organizational Commitment Defined
A desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an organization
Comes in three forms
Service Profit Chain Model
Workplace Stress Defined
Adaptive response to situations perceived as challenging or threatening to well-being
Do you want a stress-free job?
OB on Screen: Gravity
Model of Stress Episode
Environmental events or conditions that have the potential to induce stress.

Some conditions would be stressful for just about everyone (e.g., death of a spouse (stress score = 100); divorce (stress score = 73); marriage (stress score = 50); pregnancy (stress score = 40).

Less stressful conditions/life events include minor violations of the law (stress score = 11); vacations (stress score = 13); change in eating habits (stress score = 15).
Stress Reactions
The behavioural, psychological, and physiological consequences of stress.

Some of these reactions are passive responses, over which the individual has little direct control (e.g., elevated blood pressure).

Other reactions are active attempts to
with some aspect of the stress episode.
Individual Differences in Stress
People experience less stress and/or negative outcomes when they have:
Better physical health
Positive self-concept
Lower workaholism
OB on Screen: The Devil Wears Prada
Hindrance Stressors
Challenge Stressors
Student Engagement
Process Theories
Process theories of motivation are concerned with exactly
various factors motivate people.
Four Drive Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory
A process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job.
Expectancy Model for Tony Angelas
Valence of high performance
= (5 x .6) + (7 x .3) = 5.1
Valence of average performance
= (5 x .2) + (7 x .1) = 1.7
Force of high performance
= .3 x 5.1 = 1.53
Force of average performance
= 1 x 1.7 = 1.70
Managerial Implications
Increasing E-to-P Expectancies: Boost expectancies.
Increasing P-to-O Expectancies: Clarify reward contingencies.
Increasing Outcome Valences: Appreciate diverse needs.
Tony Angelas Question
Reconsider the case of Tony Angelas, which was used to illustrate expectancy theory.
Imagine that you are Tony’s boss and you think that he can be motivated to perform at a high level. Suppose you cannot modify second-level outcomes or their valences, but you can affect expectancies and instrumentalities. What would you do to motivate Tony?
Prove that you have succeeded by recalculating the force equations to demonstrate that Tony will now perform at a high level.
Organizational Justice
Distributive justice
Perceived fairness in outcomes we receive relative to our contributions and the outcomes and contributions of others

Procedural justice
Perceived fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources
Equity Theory
Equity Theory
Correcting Inequity Tension
Equity Theory Question
Use equity theory to explain why a dentist who earns $100,000 a year might be more dissatisfied with her job than a factory worker who earns $40,000.
Need theories of motivation are concerned with
motivates workers, e.g., Maslow, McClelland, McGregor, and Herzberg.
Why study early theories of motivation?
Need Theories
Behaviour Modification
Job Characteristics Model
How Important is Motivation?
Four OB Modification Techniques
Experiential Exercise
Behaviour Modification
This exercise takes approximately 10 minutes.
Two volunteers are selected to receive reinforcement.
The volunteers leave the room.
Exercise Overview
Exercise Overview
Volunteer 1
Volunteer 2
Class Review
Identify an object for the student volunteers to locate when the return to the room. The object should be unobstructed but clearly visible to the class.

volunteer 1
, students should
when the volunteer is moving away from the object.

volunteer 2
, students should
when the second volunteer is getting closer to the object.
Assign two student timekeepers to keep a record of the time it takes each of the volunteers to locate the object.

Volunteer 1 is brought back into the room and is told:

“Your task is to locate and touch a particular object in the room, and the class has agreed to help you. You cannot use words or ask questions. Begin.”
Volunteer 1 is brought back into the room and is told:

“Your task is to locate and touch a particular object in the room, and the class has agreed to help you. You cannot use words or ask questions. Begin.”
The timekeeper will present the results of how long it took each volunteer to find the object.

The class will discuss.
What was the difference in behaviour of the two volunteers?
What are the implications of this exercise to shaping behaviour in organizations?
The Junior Accountant
After graduating from business school, Sabrita received a job offer from a large accounting firm to work as a junior accountant. She was ranked in the top 10 of her class and could not have been happier. However, during the first six months, Sabrita began to reconsider her decision to join a large firm. This is how she described her job: Every day her supervisor brought several files for her to audit. He told her exactly in what order to do them and how to plan her day and work. At the end of the day, the supervisor would return to pick up the completed files. The supervisor collected the files from several other junior accountants, and then put them all together and completed the audit himself. The supervisor would then meet the client to review and discuss the audit. Sabrita did not ever meet the clients, and her supervisor never talked about his meeting with them or the final report. Sabrita felt very discouraged and wanted to quit. She was even beginning to reconsider her choice of accounting as a career.
Question 1
Describe the job characteristics and critical psychological states of Sabrita’s job. According to the Job Characteristics Model, how motivated is Sabrita and what is she likely to do?
Question 2
How would you redesign Sabrita’s job to increase its motivating potential? Be sure to describe changes you would make in the core job characteristics as well as job enrichment schemes that you might use to redesign her job.
Question 3
Suppose Sabrita completed the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) and scored her five core characteristics as follows (7-point scales):

Skill variety: 3
Task identity: 2
Task significance: 1
Autonomy: 2
Job feedback: 1

What is the motivating potential score (MPS) for her job?
Question 3
Her MPS would be

[(3+2+1)/3] x 2 x 1
[6/3] x 2 x 1
2 x 2 x 1
V = 5.1
V = 1.7
1.70 > 1.53
Full transcript