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Genes and Gender

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Shaye Parish

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of Genes and Gender

Religion has a large impact on those who practice and believe in it, and influences the gender roles inside different communities and cultures based on their religious views.
Islam (Cont'd)
One account of regarding the high status of mothers is this:
"A man asked the Prophet: 'Whom should I honor most?' The Prophet replied: 'Your mother'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother!'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your father.'"
Birth Defects
Agender describes a person who doesn't have a gender. Common terms to describe this are genderless, gender-fluid, and gender neutral. They are people who may be of any physical sex (male or female bodied), but can still identify as Agender. Gender doesn't have anything to do with a person’s physical self, but it’s all about a person’s mindset. Agender people use different pronouns than just him/her, and usually go by
. An example of that would be:
They went out for the day, or Xe went out shopping.
What is oxytocin?
It’s a very powerful hormone.
When is the hormone released? Whenever we feel attraction or love, the oxytocin levels rise up in the body. It could be sex, birth, breast feeding, kissing, hugging, and the list continues. Levels can be influenced by emotions.
What are the hormones functions?
It acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It has many different bodily functions:
1. Stimulates uterus contractions during labour, and controls bleeding after the delivery.
2. Stimulate the secretion of breast milk.
3. Male-Female bonding, Mother-Infant bonding, and increased paternal involvement with children.
4. Increase trust among strangers

Genes and Gender
Birth defects are structural or functional abnormalities present at birth that cause physical or mental disability. Birth defects can be the cause of many different reasons.
Such as:
-When one or more genes don’t work properly or part of a gene is missing
- Problems with chromosomes, such as having an extra chromosome or missing part of a chromosome
- Exposure to harmful substances such as alcohol or drugs
Medical professionals have identified thousands of different birth defects. Many birth defects can be life threatening but some are minor and do not affect life expectancy. Birth defects are currently one of the leading causes of death for infants.

What can it be responsible for?
Oxytocin can be harmful despite the increased bonding between pairs. Sometimes oxytocin can be like a drug for people. Studies are researching how possibly people become depressed after a partner separation because of the lack of oxytocin secretion. But studies are also being conducted to see if oxytocin would be helpful to people with social anxiety and schizophrenia.
How does it influence Gender bonding?

Firstly, oxytocin makes people more trustful of each other. Lately new studies have discovered how the hormone influences us to feel more sympathetic, supportive and to be more open with our feelings. These are all helpful attributes to have when in a relationship. Oxytocin is constantly used in studies for couple’s therapy.

Chemical Structure
Recessive and Dominant Genes
What are genes?
Genes are units of hereditary material passed to the offspring by the parent. They determine the characteristics of an offspring. You have two pairs of each gene from both parents.
What’s a recessive gene?
It’s a gene that only produces a characteristic phenotype, if the allele is identical.
What’s a dominant gene?
It’s a gene that produces a characteristic phenotype, whether the allele is identical or not.

So what’s the difference?
Dominant genes trump the recessive gene. If you have a dominant gene and a recessive gene, you will get the dominant gene’s trait.
How does that work?
For example, eye colour. Let B represent brown eyes and the dominant gene. Let b represent blue eyes (or green, hazel, etc.) and the recessive gene. The Gene combinations that could occur are BB, Bb, and bb. BB and Bb will both result in brown eyes, where bb would result in blue eyes.

1. Not attached dominant, attached recessive.
2. Curly dominant, straight recessive, wavy co-dominant.
3. Touch your ring finger with pinky dominant, can’t touch recessive.
4. Inability dominant, able to fold recessive.
5. Dimples dominant, no dimples recessive.
6. Long eye lashes dominant, short recessive.
7. Hair on back of hands dominant, no hair recessive.
8. Straight thumb dominant bent thumb recessive.
9. Freckles dominant, no freckles recessive.
10. No cleft dominant, cleft recessive.

A gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Mutations range in size from a DNA base to a segment of a chromosome.
Gene mutations can occur in two ways:
1. They are inherited from a parent. Known as a hereditary mutation. Present in the egg or sperm cells. These mutations are present throughout a person’s life.
2. Acquired over a person’s lifetime. Known as a somatic mutation. These are from environmental factors such as radiation. Cannot be inherited.
There is a special third party type of gene mutation, known as a
de novo
. These mutations occur in the egg, sperm cell, or just after fertilization. These may explain genetic disorders in a child, which have had no part in the family’s genetic history.

Some genetic changes are extremely rare, where others are common. Genetic changes that occur with more than a 1% chance are known as polymorphisms. They are so common they are considered part of the DNA’s normal variation. Polymorphisms are responsible for the variety in eye colour, hair colour and blood types. These are not harmful to humans, but puts us at a possible risk of developing certain disorders.
Common gene mutations:
a) Baldness
b) Pimples
c) Cancer
d) Possibly alcoholism
e) Colour blindness
f) Sickle cell anemia

Types of DNA mutations
1. Substitution- Exchanges one base for another (eg. Adenine for guanine). This mutation is responsible for incomplete proteins possibly if a STOP codon is accidentally placed in the middle of a protein, and also sickle cell anemia.

2. Insertion -Extra base pairs are inserted into a new place on the DNA strand.

3. Deletion- A section of the DNA is lost or deleted.

4. Frameshift- Deletion of insertion causes a frameshift mutation. Each codon is three bases long, and the loss of a base could cause a DNA strand to be too short or too long. This can create a useless protein.

Many genetic disorders due to gene changes are present in many body systems and cannot be “Cured.” For many genetic conditions the treatment is focused on the management of particular symptoms. Treatment for certain genetic disorders could be anything from transplants to chemotherapy.
Gender Roles
A set of social normalcy that is generally considered appropriate for either a man or a woman in a social or interpersonal relationship.
Gender Expression:
the external manifestation of one’s gender identity, through masculine, feminine, or gender neutral behaviour, clothing, hairstyles or body attributes.
Gender Identity:
a person’s inner sense and concept of being male or female.
Most cultures express only two genders, male and female, while some can express up to five genders. Some non-western societies have three genders (man, woman and third gender).

Main Genders
Gender Roles and Children
Kids learn to categorize themselves by gender at the age of 3. They learn this from their parental environment and how they’re raised – boys are represented by blue; girls are represented with pink, boys play with trucks; girls play with dolls.
Some theories of socialization emphasize how society sanctions what is inappropriate behaviour, while other theories suggest that gender identification and behaviour is learned by the child by rewarded for behaviours that are seen as appropriate towards their sex; in other words, gender is socially taught and acquired.

Though society shapes what people see gender roles as, another group that has strong influence over gender roles is peer pressure. Peer pressure reinforces a culture’s traditional gender roles. A child who seems to stick out, or isn’t reflecting what are considered “normal” gender roles could be teased by their peers, sometimes even to where the peer group excludes that child.
Talcott Parsons
He developed a model for the “nuclear family” in 1955. It compared a strict, traditional view of gender roles to a more liberated view. This model was used to contrast the extreme positions of gender roles.
Femininity and Masculinity refer to the dominant sex role pattern in the majority of both traditional and modern societies: that of male assertiveness and female nurture.

• Femininity: “Femininity stands for a society in which social gender roles overlap: Both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life.”

• Masculinity: “Masculinity stands for a society in which social gender roles are clearly distinct: Men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender and concerned with the qualities of life.”

Geert Hofstede
Geert Hofstede
Masculine cultures expect men to be assertive, ambitious and competitive, to strive for material success, and to respect whatever is big, strong, and fast. Masculine cultures expect women to serve and care for the non-material quality of life, for children and for the weak. Feminine cultures, on the other hand, define relatively overlapping social roles for the sexes, in which, in particular, men need not be ambitious or competitive but may go for a different quality of life than material success; men may respect whatever is small, weak, and slow.
Simon Baron-Cohen
He claimed that “the female brain is predominantly hard-wired for empathy, while the male brain is predominantly hard-wired for understanding and building systems.”
Gender Identity
A person who feels that their gender is both fully male and fully female and usually switches between the two. The transition is known to be a difficult idea for many bigender people. Unlike a person who is a cis gender person, bigenders may feel more harmony with one identity, but their other identity may make them feel the same unhappiness or need to change that many binary transgender people feel. Since people can’t have a body that changes from male to female at our leisure, it’s hard for bigendered person to be comfortable with both of their genders.
A non-binary gender identity that can be of any sex (male, female, intersex). An androgynous person may possess traits that are both feminine and masculine, or neither. Androgynies are gender non-conforming, which means that they are gender-queer. Unlike bigenders, who switch between distinct masculine and feminine personas, androgynies express more femininity and masculinity on a day-to-day basis due to mood or of what society expects from them. An androgyne is a third gender that is distinct from a man or a woman.
They are people born into a body not associated with their gender, or were given a sex that didn't match their gender either. Even though a large amount of people believe that Trans people are “just homosexual and trying to find acceptance”, transgender people have a large range of sexualities and romantic attractions to people.Transgender is completely separate from sexual orientation and doesn't associate with it; a trans person could identify as pansexual, demisexual, homosexual, heterosexual, asexual, etc.
A recent English term that emerged in 1990 during the third annual inter-tribal Native American/First Nations gay/lesbian American conference in Winnipeg. It’s a third gender role that is used to indicate a person who has both a masculine spirit and a feminine spirit, hence the name “Two-Spirit”.
Benjamin Spock
people are likely to appreciate girls’ looks and boys’ achievements. He says that, for example, girls receive comments like “You’re so pretty!” for the outfit she’s wearing. Though the comment isn't causing any harm, if repeated over and over, the girl will eventually find that she’s only appreciated for her looks. Boys, however, are admired for what they can do. A large amount of parents expect boys to be active, to act tough, and often boys who don’t act like this are seen to go against the “normal” gender roles.
A person born with sex characteristics that don’t fit the conventional definition of male or female. Their sexual anatomy, reproductive organs, or chromosome patterns are ambiguous and their outer genitalia can be surgically ‘corrected’ to fit into a socially accepted sex category. Like Agender, an intersex person can be identified as male, female, or as neither. Again, similar to Agender, they can go by the pronouns
Gender Roles In the World
Gender roles play a large part in defining a country. Gender has evolved and changed throughout the world, but each country, or rather, each person has their own values and opinions on gender roles.

"In a World Values Survey, people were asked if they thought that wage work should be restricted to only men in the case of shortage in jobs. While in Iceland the proportion that agreed was 3.6%, in Egypt it was 94.9%.”
Europe & North America
In North America and Europe, the "Westerners", both men and women are seen and treated as equal. Though sexism and gender dominance aren't as common, both males and females are socially restricted and looked upon based just on gender. Though in the United States, there have been people who defied expectations of stereotypical careers and have earned special job descriptions for themselves. Some include: “woman doctor”, “male nurse”, “woman lawyer”, “lady barber”, “male secretary”, etc.
In Asia, gender roles have been evolving rather quickly, taking on a more Westernized way of thinking. As an example, a Communist party in China said that "women hold up half the sky". This shows that, instead of sticking to the traditional ways of having women be domesticated, decorative, and housebound people, China has embraced the notion of gender equality. However, in some other parts of Asia, gender equality is just now being introduced to traditional society which values men as the more important gender.
Some Conservative Christian congregations believe that, in praying or prophesying, no man should cover his head, but that every woman should cover hers.
Certain roles in Christian denominations have been restricted to males or female only. In Orthodox and Catholic churches, for example, men serve as priests and only males serve in positions such as bishop, patriarch, or pope.

The primary role played by women is to be mothers, who are considered to be the most important part of the family. Though a woman may be considered the most important member of the family, she isn't the head of the family. So this could mean that the head of the family and a person’s importance has little relevance to each other.
Hindu deities are more obscurely gendered than deities of other religions. Some deities are able to appear mostly male, mostly female, and ambiguously gendered.
Females are more restricted than males in their access to sacred objects and spaces, like Hindu temples and inner sanctums. Though this can be explained partly because women’s bodily functions, such as menstruation, are often seen by both sexes as polluting/debilitating.
Males are more symbolically associated with divinity and higher morals and ethics than females are.
Hindu cultural traditions reveal women in contrary ways. From one point of view, women’s fertility is given great value, but on the other side female sexuality is portrayed as potentially dangerous and destructive.

in a nutshell can be broken into 3 categories: Sex, gender expression, and sexual orientation. It consists of who the self believes to be, who society believes the self to be, and the biological composition of the self.
- Biological/physical make up to differentiate between male and female
- Most people have either male or female organs
- To be inter sexed means to have both genitalia
Gender Expression
- Socially constructed differences between male and female (gender roles)
- Physical sex and gender expression does not always match
Sexual Orientation
- The sexuality that is determined by the self
- Wide range of sexualities: Hetero, homo, bi, asexual e.g.

Status Quo in most countries has a specific way they believe each category of gender should interact, but this is not always the circumstance.
Male – Masculine – Heterosexual
Female – Feminine – Heterosexual
Most stereotypes of cases that do not resemble Status Quo are as follows:
Female – Masculine – Homosexual
Male – Feminine – Homosexual
However this is not true, not all gay men are feminine, and not all straight men are masculine.

People also can be
. Transgender is someone who does not fit into society’s expectations of how a gender should appear, feel and act. This could be someone who is biologically born a man, and then performs an operation to become a woman, or more simply a biologically born man, with the sexual identity of a woman. A transgender person could possibly not consider being a man or a woman.
Genetic Disorders
Single Gene Disorders
A single genetic disorder is the result of a single mutated gene. There are over 4000 human diseases caused by single gene defects. Single gene disorders can be passed on to subsequent generations in several ways.
autosomal dominant
genes only one mutated copy of the gene will be necessary for a person to be affected by an autosomal dominant disorder. Each affected person usually has one affected parent.
autosomal recessive
genes, two copies of the gene must be mutated for a person to be affected by an autosomal recessive disorder. An affected person usually has unaffected parents who each carry a single copy of the mutated gene.
disorders are caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome. Only a few disorders have this inheritance pattern, with a prime example being X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.

Disorder prevalence (approximate)
Autosomal dominant
Familial hypercholesterolemia 1 in 500
Polycystic kidney disease 1 in 1250
Neurofibromatosis type I 1 in 2,500
Hereditary spherocytosis 1 in 5,000
Marfan syndrome 1 in 4,000 [2]
Huntington's disease 1 in 15,000 [3]
Autosomal recessive
Sickle cell anaemia 1 in 625
Cystic fibrosis 1 in 2,000
Tay-Sachs disease 1 in 3,000
Phenylketonuria 1 in 12,000
Mucopolysaccharidoses 1 in 25,000
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency 1 in 40,000
Glycogen storage diseases 1 in 50,000
Galactosemia 1 in 57,000
Duchenne muscular dystrophy 1 in 7,000
Hemophilia 1 in 10,000
Values are for liveborn infants

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene activity which are not caused by changes in the DNA sequence.

Behavioural epigenetics is the study of examining the role of epigenetics in shaping animal (including human) behaviour. It’s an experimental science that seeks to explain how nurture (virtually everything that happens during the life-span) shapes nature (biological heredity).

Epigenetics in Psychology
Anxiety and Risk-Taking
In a small clinical study published in 2008, epigenetic differences were linked to differences in risk-taking and reactions to stress in monozygotic (identical) twins. The study identified twins with different life paths, in which one twin displayed risk-taking behaviour, whereas the other displayed more cautious behaviour. The author of the study noted that despite associations between epigenetic markers and personality differences, epigenetics cannot predict complex decision-making processes like career selection.

• Anencephaly: Anencephaly is a relatively rare birth defect that results in the baby being born with missing parts of the brain and skull. This birth defect most commonly happens in the first month of pregnancy. Anencephaly happens if the upper part of the neural tube does not close all the way. Almost all victims of anencephaly die very shortly after birth. Although the cause of anencephaly is not directly known researchers have found that the lack of folic acid before getting pregnant and in the early stages of pregnancy can be a leading factor.
Common Birth Defects:
• Craniosynostosis: Craniosynostosis is a birth defect in which the skull closes before the brain has fully developed. Although the brain continues to grow the skull will not expand for the brain which in return results in pressure on the brain and impaired development of the brain. Craniosynostosis can be gene-linked, or caused by metabolic diseases, such as rickets or an overactive thyroid. One of the first signs of craniosynostosis is an oddly shaped skull. Some causes include increased intracranial pressure, developmental delays, or mental retardation.
Gender stereotypes are negative attributes given to both males and females. Certain stereotypes are given to an entire gender rather than judging one on an individual bias.
Many people often confuse the difference between sex and gender. Sex is the biological make up, while gender on the other hand is how one defines the self. For example, someone may be born a male physically but mentally believe they are female.
At a very young age we are introduced to gender stereotypes. A little boy is immediately taught that to be a man you have to be tough you have to be strong and to possess certain “feminine “characteristics questions that man hood. A little girl on the other hand is immediately taught that to be a lady she must be sweet, innocent, polite, and to possess certain “masculine” characteristics makes her less of a lady.

Speech pattern is the distinctive manner of oral expression. It is prevalent that males and females have very different ways of oral expression. It is proven that in majority girls speak more than boys. Girls also have a higher frequency than boys. Communication between males and females can often be a never ending issue between the two sexes perhaps because in a way we speak two different languages. Men tend to focus their conversation on sports, money, and business, while women tend to speak more of their feelings and home. Men are often known as being very direct when sharing their thoughts while females on the other hand have the tendency to sugar coat things and tip toe around the truth. Men when dealing with an issue often keep in their feelings, in comparison to women who will often speak to other women and find comfort in talking out their problem. A common misunderstanding between men and women will be how we perceive what the other is saying. In many cases women misunderstand the way something comes across from there significant other as being disinterested while in actuality they just don’t present the reaction in the same way as a girlfriend would.

- this is the sexual attraction between two people of the opposite sex. Such as women attracted to men and men attracted to women.

- this is the sexual attraction between two people of the same sexes. Such as man to man and women to women.

- this is the sexual attraction to both opposite sex and the same sex. Such as women to women and women to man, man to man and man to women.

- this is known as no sexuality, which means they have a lack of sexual attraction/interest towards either sex.

- this is the sexual attraction towards more than one gender but do not wish to be known as bisexual, it implies that there is only two binary sexes. (Do not confuse this with pansexuality.)

(or Omnisexuality)- this is the sexual attraction towards people regardless of gender, some people refer to themselves as “gender blind.” In other words they do not base you on your gender, but your personality.

- this is when someone identifies themselves with a physical sex that is the opposite of their biological one. If a person experiences discomfort, caused by the desire to be the opposite sex a medical diagnoses can be made. Ex. A person can be born a female, and feels uncomfortable with their gender as a female they may change to a male. Or male to female. This is a very long and expensive process.

There are seven different types of sexualities:

Everyone’s sexualities affect who they are and how they express themselves. There is a large variety of how different people experience their own sexualities. Some people are very sexual when other people feel absolutely no feelings of sexual attraction at all.
Anyone’s sexuality can be influenced by their surroundings, like, family, culture, religion, friends, media, and experiences. No matter what type of sexuality you are, we all have different thoughts, desires, attractions, and values that are different and unique.
Genetic Disorders
A genetic disorder is caused when a mutation occurs in a gene that can occur in your lifetime or passed on from parent to child.
There are three types of genetic disorders:
Single- Gene Disorders
- a mutation effects one gene.

Chromosomal Disorder
- when parts of chromosomes or chromosomes are missing or different. Chromosomes are the structures that help hold out genes, Down syndrome is the outcome of this disorder.

Complex Disorders
- there are mutations that occur in two or more genes, an example of this is colon cancer. Often people’s lifestyle and surrounding environment play a big role in complex disorders.

Speech Patterns
Social Influence
Social influence Occurs when someone’s opinions, emotions, or behavior is affected by someone else.
Three broad varieties of social influence:
- this is when someone changes their behavior because of another person or groups request, even if that person does not agree with them. When there is an individual that acts a certain way because others asked him or her to do something (but it was possible for that person to refuse or disagree.) this happens to everyone, if it’s a friend pleading for help, or a business person persuading you into buying something, the request is sometimes up front and direct.

- this is when someone is influenced by someone who is liked and respected, like a famous celebrity.

- this is when someone accepts and agrees a belief or behavior publicly and personally.

Our aim is what cross-cultural psychologist Walter Lonner calls “a universalistic psychology – a psychology that is as valid and meaningful in Omaha and Osaka as it is in Rome and Botswana.” Attitudes and behaviours will always vary with culture, but the process in which attitudes influence culture vary much less.
In surveys, men admit to more aggression than women do, and in lab experiments,men did exhibit more physical aggression, for example, by administering what they believe are hurtful electric shocks.
Biology or Culture?
Biology and Culture
As people mature to middle age and beyond, women become more assertive and self-confident, while men become more empathetic and less domineering. These shrinking gender differences can be explained by a few possible things. one is hormone changes, and another is role demands.
While courting, providing, and protecting, men play up their macho sides and forgo their needs for interdependence and nurturance. While courting and rearing young children, young women restrain their impulses to assert and be independent. Men and women supposedly express more of their restrained tenancies as they graduate from these early adult roles. Each becomes more androgynous as they age.
Gene Therapy
Scientists have taken the logical step of trying to introduce genes directly into human cells, focusing on diseases caused by single-gene defects, such as cystic fibrosis, haemophilia, muscular dystrophy, thalassemia, and sickle cell anemia. Gene therapy is the use of DNA as a pharmaceutical agent to treat disease. It takes its name from the idea that DNA can be used to supplement or alter genes within an individual's cells as a therapy to treat disease.
Somatic Gene Therapy
In somatic gene therapy, the therapeutic genes are transferred into the somatic cells (non sex-cells), or body, of a patient. Any modifications and effects will be restricted to the individual patient only, and will not be inherited by the patient's offspring or later generations.
Germ Line Gene Therapy
In germ line gene therapy, germ cells (sperm or eggs) are modified by the introduction of functional genes, which are integrated into their genomes. Germ cells will combine to form a zygote which will divide to produce all the other cells in an organism and therefore if a germ cell is genetically modified then all the cells in the organism will contain the modified gene. This would allow the therapy to be heritable and passed on to later generations.
A Fact or perception?
Women are better care givers and best suited to raising children.....

According to stats Canada, in the last 20 years the number of stay at home dads had increased to almost 40%
- Hormones play a major part in
the development in male and females.
- Hormones affect our mood
and the way we think.
- Levels in certain hormones vary in
men and women

Testosterone is the main Hormone.

- Testosterone is an important hormone for men,
and too much of it or too little of it can certainly have effects.
- Testosterone is truly a whole-body hormone with complex roles in the body.
- It bolsters muscle strength, energy, libido, lean muscle mass, mood and outlook, plus a range of other effects.
-As a man ages, naturally his levels of testosterone will drop.
- Men can experience unwanted changes with a lowered testosterone level such as difficulty gaining and retaining lean muscle mass, a depressed mood and outlook on life and more.

Effected by Testosterone levels
- sex drive
- sperm production
- muscle mass/strength
- fat distribution
- bone density
- red blood cell production

- Changes in male hormone levels have
been associated with a range of significant diseases, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis and hypertension.

- Men have estrogen as well as females; it’s just in much smaller quantities than women, so it does not play the same role as it would in women.

- Estrogen levels rise in men around middle age as more testosterone is converted to estrogen, so that they experience more of the estrogen-like effects such as being more emotional

Estrogen –

-From puberty onwards, Four Hormones:
(LH, FSH, Oestrogen and progesterone) all play a vital part in regulating a woman's menstrual cycle which results in her periods.
-Each individual hormone follows its own pattern, rising and falling at different points in the cycle, but together they produce a predictable chain of events.

- Oestrogen (Variant of Estrogen)

o During puberty, oestrogen stimulates breast development
and causes other female body parts to mature. (Vagina, Uterus and Fallopian tubes)

o It also plays a role in the growth spurts and alters the distribution of fat on a girl's body, typically in more being deposited around the hips, butt and thighs.

- Progesterone (Variant of Estrogen)
o Acts as a precursor in the nervous system.
o Increases core temperature during ovulation.
o It appears to prevent Endometrial cancer
o It may affect gum health, Increasing risk of
o It normalizes blood clotting
o Normalizes Zinc and Copper Levels.
o Acts as an anti-inflammatory

- A woman's hormones change dramatically.
- The usual fall in oestrogen and progesterone at the end of the menstrual
cycle doesn't occur, so no period is seen.

- A new hormone, HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin), produced by the developing placenta, stimulates to produce the higher levels of oestrogen and progesterone that are needed to sustain a pregnancy.

- By the fourth month of pregnancy, the placenta takes over from the ovaries as the main producer of hormones. These hormones cause the lining of the womb to thicken, increase the volume of blood circulating, and relax the muscles of the womb to make room for the growing baby.

- Around the time of delivery, other hormones come into play that help the womb to contract during and after labour, as well as stimulate the production and release of breast milk.

After Childbirth:

- Levels of oestrogen, progesterone and
other hormones fall sharply, causing a number of physical changes.

- Menopause is when a women has not had a
period for one year.

- Eventually the ovaries produce little oestrogen.

- For most of a woman's life, oestrogen helps to protect the heart and bones, as well as maintaining the breasts, womb, vagina and bladder in their healthy state.

- The marked loss of oestrogen in a woman's body that occurs around, and after, the menopause can, therefore, have crippling effects on her health; as well as causing uncomfortable symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, lack of estrogen can increase the risk of heart disease and the bone disorder osteoporosis

-Men and women vary when it comes to Physicality and Emotions.
- Men are known to be physically stronger.
- Women excel in language

Physical differences:

-Males have more bodily hair, especially in the chest region.

-Males are generally heavier, taller and physically stronger than females.

-Men have 50 percent greater total muscle mass,
-Women are more sensitive to sound than men

-Women have a larger stomach, kidneys, liver and appendix, and smaller lungs than men.

-Females have puberty changes about two years earlier to males.

-Fertility in females decrease as they age, especially after 35 years and it ends with menopause, males are fertile even in their old age.

Difference between males and females:
Emotional/Thinking Differences:
-Men appear to have an advantage in tasks requiring logical and reasoning abilities
and excel in math as well as science.
-Women have been shown to excel in language and tasks that involve manual dexterity (Writing, Art etc.)
- IQ tests show both MEN and WOMEN about equal in overall learning ability

- Females are more emotional and express great intensity of emotion
when compared to males.

- A global study of 55 cultures found that women tend to be more emotional, agreeable and extroverted than men.

-Women read other people’s emotional reactions better than men

: Men are known to have more brute strength then women, Women are more emotional than men. Men and women are equal in overall learning ability.

Gender Roles

Over the past 100+ Years Gender roles have significantly changed.
Men being the less effected compared to women.

Stereotypical Life at Home (Early 1900’s):

-Men: Put on the suit and tie and head to work

-Women: Wear a nice dress, clean the house, make dinner and look after the kids.

-In the early 1900’s women were unable to vote in Canada
and America.

- By 1918 women could vote federally in Canada.

-During the world wars many jobs were opened up for women in factory’s increasing job opportunities for women.

-This would result in a recognition for women equality.

Modern times:

- Jobs are much more diverse, (Business leaders etc.)

- There are still many jobs that are favored to one gender.
(Secretary [Women], Construction Worker [Male]


-In the early 1900’s men were a huge portion of the
work force.

-All business leaders, Presidents and soldiers were men.

-Male athletes were favored (First female at an Olympic game was in the year 1900)

-Men were expected to provide for their families.

Modern times:

- Male athletes have been heavily favored to
women athletes in the past.

- Women make up for 44% of Olympic athletes

- Male sports teams still favored.

- Business leaders, Presidents and soldiers are now a mixture of men and women, still in majority of males.

- Men and women share the same jobs.

Life at Home (Modern):

- Men and women both have jobs

- Men and women equally share Cleaning, Cooking (Homes may varies)

- Both family members take a huge part in looking after their kids.


- Over the past 100+ years men and women have went from being separated between Work and home to becoming equals. Today men are still seen as more physical and women are still fighting to become equal to men.

A brain disorder that causes a breakdown of thought processes, it affects how a person acts, thinks, and sees the world. They have a altered perception of reality. People with schizophrenia may speak in strange and confusing ways, see or hear things that don’t actually exist, feel like they’re being constantly watched, or that people are trying to harm them. Living with schizophrenia is very difficult, there is a faint line between realities and make believe to them. Some people may even withdraw from society or act out in confusing or fear. It usually starts to appear in late teens or early adulthood. In rare cases it appears in young children, but the symptoms are slightly different.
The current belief of schizophrenia is that there are a number of genes that contribute to this disorder, but none have full responsibility of causing schizophrenia. This disorder is actually quite like diabetes. It is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Some researchers say that schizophrenia can actually be preventable.
This disorder is causes intense shift in energy, mood, thinking, and behavior. It can go from heights extreme mania to lows of depression on others. The symptoms of bipolar disorder varies from person to person, usually depression is the main problem. But for others manic symptoms are the larger concern. There are also forms of mixed episodes, this is when the symptoms of hypomania and mania occur together.
Bipolar Disorder:
There are several different types of Bipolar disorder, that each have separate patterns of symptoms:
1) Bipolar I Disorder- this stage consists of mood swings that cause signifigant in your schooling, job and relationships. Possibility of sever and dangerous manic episodes.

2) Bipolar II Disorder- this stage is less intense than stage I. This causes irritability, some elevated mood, and possible change in functioning. Bipolar II is easier to deal with and there should be no problem with carrying on with a normal day routine. Unlike stage I, you don’t have full-blown mania, but hypomania. Hypomania is a less intense form of mania, usually the periods of depression last longer than the hypomania.

3) Cyclothymic Disorder- this is a mild form of bipolar disorder, depression and hypomania can be disruptive but the highs and lows of Bipolar disorder are not as intense in this mild stage.

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) :
Symptoms of ADHD are, a short attention span, restlessness or constant fidgeting, and being easily distracted.
Many people with ADHA have learning difficulties but it can occur in people of any intellectual ability. It is possible for people with ADHD to have sleeping disorders. The symptoms of ADHD start to show in early ages of childhood, and because very noticeable when the child’s environment changes, like starting school.

The exact cause of ADHD is unknown but some researchers show that it runs in families.

Possible risks factors include:

being male
-smoking, alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy
being born prematurely
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