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Transcript of Tunisian Revolution
OBJECTIVES The Tunisian Revolution Inequalities Privatization Political Control Corruption Education vs. Unemployment SOCIAL ECONOMIC POLITICAL RACHEL SALVADOR
KANYA MANOJ TUNISIA : A BRIEF HISTORY Tunisia achieved independence from France in 1956.
Independence Leader, Habib Bourguiba became the first Tunisian president.
Tunisia became ruled by a one party state, The Secular Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD).
Bourguiba was constitutionally proclaimed “President for Life.” Western Pressure &
International Business Independence Characterized by Pro-western policies, Secularism, Women’s Rights, Education Extension
Weak liberal economy, Domestic policies, State owned enterprises, fiscal spending on social projects
Export-oriented policy, fueled by domestic oil revenues, agricultural products, car manufacturing and tourism
Foreign debt in 1980’s: International Monetary Fund Structural Adjustment Program Bourguiba &
the Economy, 1957-1987 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali Assumed the Presidency on 7 November 1987 in a bloodless ‘medical coup d'état’.
Pragmatic development plans based on export-led industrialization, universal education, female emancipation, poverty reduction and raising living standards.
Promised more democratic rule than Bourguiba- one of the 1st action was to loosen control over press
Re-elected with over 90% majority including final 2009 election
Privatization, Foreign investment, Reduced Tariffs, and reorienting Tunisia towards global economy. We the people demand :
- to suppress Ben Ali's constitution
- the dissolution of the parliament and the chamber of counselors
- the foundation of a constituent assembly that represents the people
- the dissolution of the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD, Ben Ali's party) and the nationalization of all of its belongings
- the trial of Ben Ali's ministers and counselors
- the foundation of a Counsel for the Protection of the Revolution
- to repatriate Ben Ali and judge him for high treason and premeditated murder "THE REVOLUTION MUST CONTINUE UNTIL IT HAS REACHED ALL OF ITS OBJECTIVES." Among [our] demands the most immediate are:
1. An immediate end to the dictatorship’s campaign of repression against the people.
2. The release of all prisoners.
3. The arrest and prosecution of all those responsible for repression, the plunder of property, and murder.
4. The repeal of all restrictions on civil liberties, free expression, organization and assembly.The adoption of immediate economic measures to alleviate unemployment and poverty. We demand income security, health care and the immediate recognition of trade unions.
The Workers’ Communist Party will remain, as it has always been, on the side of the workers, the poor and all those at the forefront of a new order in Tunisia. For freedom, democracy and social justice.
End Statement. 14 OBJECTIVES - Jan. 20, 2011; Left Coalition – January 14th Front (led by the Workers’ Communist Party of Tunisia) " " Timeline: (Dec. 17 2010-Jan 26. 2011) Mohammed Bouazizi, a 26 year old man trying to support his family by selling fruits and vegetables in the central town of Sidi Bouzid, sets himself on fire in front of a local municipal office. Protests being in Sidi Bouzid and quickly spread across the region. Dec. 17 Dec. 27 Rallies spread to Kairouan, Sfax, and Ben Guerdane. 1,000 Tunisians hold a rally in Tunis, the capital, calling for jobs in a show of solidarity with those protesting in poorer regions. Dec. 25 Dec. 28 Jan. 3 Jan. 6 Jan. 7 Jan. 14 Jan. 13 AGE, CLASS, & EDUCATION GENDER RELIGION & POLITICAL AFFILIATION Exile of political opponents
members of Ennahda, the Islamist party
Constitutional reforms to maintain power
lifted term limits in 2002
Repression of uprisings
2008 in Gafsa, 2009 in Feriana, August 2010 in Ben Guerdene
Banned independent associations Monitoring from network of government cells (thousands) and police “of every aspect of life, as well as work, and functioned as a warning to respect the norm, the established order”
Widespread use of torture and poor prison conditions
Overlooked by West because of “War on Terror”
Definition of terrorism “is vague and broad, hence deviating from the principle of legality and allowing for wide usage of counter-terrorism measures in practice” 2010 UN report Abandoned the state-managed capitalism
Suggested by the IMF
Collusion of political elite and entrepreneurial class: rentier economic activity Extreme international pressure through
IMF and World Bank: dictate policies as conditions of investment
Western countries for “War on Terror”
Because of International Business....
Developed service economy (emphasized in education) to attract foreign investors
Tourism = mainstay of economy
BUT consumes resources
Purchase of resources (mining oil, coal…) by multinational corporations
- At less than market value
- In collusion with elites
- Little benefit for Tunisian people GDP per capita from $7,182 to $9,489 between 2005 and 2010
Gained 8 points in competitive index from 2009 to 2010 Uneven regional development
"Two Tunisias" Coast vs. Interior (less developmental program) :
- Population with access to treated water: 99% of urban, 84% of rural
- Access to sanitary facility: 96% of urban, 64% of rural
• 9 / 10 jobs are created on the coast
• Approximately 90% of Tunisia's investment projects have focused on the coastal regions, leaving the interior and south disproportionately underdeveloped. - in underdeveloped regions, 44% unemployment rate among college graduates (19% overall, post revolution) Increasing youth unemployment accentuated by a skills mismatch and inefficient labor market. Unemployment rates and Education levels Gender Inequality Tunisia’s Gender Inequality Index (2008 data) = 0.481
- only slightly worse than the United States = 0.457
- better than most of Africa, Asia, and South America
low gender inequality --> when there is discontent, women will be active in driving the protests One of the lowest employment rates in the world which has not improved much in the past two decades despite increased levels of education. Approximately 200,000 of the 800,000 of these unemployed were youth holding university degrees Money invested in “security”
Less for infrastructure, healthcare, education, training, and job creation
Perception: economic growth but no personal benefit
Confidence in house affordability from 74% to 41% between 2009 and 2010 corruption of ruling family highly cited as a major reason for the people’s discontent.
Ranks 59 / 178 countries, with a corruption index of 4.3
- mediocre score but actually relatively good compared to region - few countries in Africa and Asia are better.
- Russia (2.1), Italy (3.9), Ukraine (2.4), Greece (3.5)
- recent information revealed by Wikileaks Arrest and torture of thousands of innocents based on religious and political beliefs
Censorship of press
Ranks 186th in the world, in press freedom near the complete bottom of the list, Government marked by
- $27M found in Ben Ali's mansion
Nepotism (“mafia like”)
- “Seemingly half of the Tunisian business community can claim a Ben Ali connection through marriage, and many of their relations are reported to have made the most of their lineage...”
US ambassador, June 2008
“Benaliste” kleptocracy CONTEXT CONTEXT Economic Growth
1. Reject the amended government
2. Dissolve the RCD
3. Form a prosperous government
4. Dissolve the existing political structure and create a new democratic system
5. Dissolve the police & form a new police force
7. Expropriate the former ruling family
8. Create employment
9. Build a national economy
10. Guarantee freedom
11. Support its cause.
12. Resistance to normalization
13. Continue the mobilization/protests
14. Invites others to intervene "Glory to the martyrs of the Intifada and Victory to the revolutionary masses of our people!" Majority identified economy as primary and civil liberties, corruption, or both as secondary motivations
A very small minority (6%) identified establishing an Islamic regime as a motivator Conducted in over the spring and summer of 2011, the Arab Barometer surveyed 1,220 people in Egypt and 1,196 in Tunisia using area probability sampling techniques.
The composition of the movements is as follows: SNAPSHOT DEMOGRAPHICS.... Population: 10,732,900
More than 50% under 30 years
67% urban population in 2010
- total population: 74.3%
- male: 83.4% ---> youngest generation: 96.6%
- female: 65.3% ---> youngest generation: 90+%
Life Expectancy and Gender Ratios more favorable for women showing relative gender equality disproportionately Middle Class
16% of Tunisians participated in demonstrations, twice that of Egypt although less in absolute terms
disproportionately young (35% were under 24 years of age) whereas Egyptians were disproportionately of working class (59% were between 25-44 yrs old)
While youths featured prominently in leadership roles and the events sparking both revolutions, participants came from across the age spectrum. disproportionately male (79%)
- nevertheless, woman who did protest had similar occupational profiles and those who stayed at home were disproportionately housewives Ben Ali warns in a national television broadcast that protests are “unacceptable” and will have a negative impact on the economy. About 250 student demonstrators, stage a peaceful march in the city of Thala. Reports suggest that 95 per cent of Tunisia's 8,000 lawyers launch a strike in solidarity with protesters and demanding an end of police brutality against peaceful protesters Bloggers, web activists and a rapper who had published a song criticizing the government were arrested. Ben Ali, makes a television address announcing not to seek re-election in 2014, more freedoms into society. Ben Ali imposes a state of emergency, fires the country’s government, promises fresh legislative elections within six months. Ben Ali exiles to Saudi Arabia that same night. What happened next... 'New' Revolution People vs. Governments --> Unheard of in modern era
Social Media (Facebook, Twitter)
Information coming directly from people- not media outlets
Allowed ideas to spread
Based on economic conditions Western Implications Ben Ali was pro-western leader
Radical Islamist leaders popular
Islamists can foster terrorism
Protests against economic conditions
Location in regards to Europe
Italy and Spain Continuing Unrest Economy continuing to struggle
Same if not worse economic conditions before Ben Ali’s resignation
Assassination of popular leftist leader Chokri Belaid by hard-line Islamists
Triggered violent protests
Retooled cabinet and new Prime Minister New Demands: The End. "Not one official has talked to us," says Mohammad Boukhari, 40, an unemployed teacher. "Where are they? Why won't they listen to what we need?" He is interrupted by Issawi Mohammad Naja, 32, an unemployed agriculturalist. "We are here because we want our dignity. We don't want to have to rely on political favors or bribes to get jobs; we need to clean out the system." Another young man pushes through the burgeoning crowd. "I'm an IT graduate and I have been unemployed for four years because I don't know anyone in the municipality. What is my future? We are all Bouazizis if our hopes are dashed." Jaber Hajlawi, an unemployed 22-year-old lawyer and one of Bouazizi's neighbors, leaned against the graffitied wall as he lit a cigarette. "We were silent before but Mohammed showed us that we must react," he says. Clad in a short black leather jacket and blue jeans with gelled black hair, he looks the part of a rebel, with a cause. "My brother has a Ph.D.; he works in a supermarket. The problem is that qualifications mean nothing. It's all about who you know," he says. "Now, we expect things to change. I want my freedom and my rights. I want to work. I want a job." https://www.facebook.com/Revolution.Tunisie Gapminder: Employment rate vs. Education Rate