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What are the Features of the Ocean Floor?

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Paige Grabmuller

on 8 June 2015

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Transcript of What are the Features of the Ocean Floor?

What are the Features of the Ocean Floor?
What is an Ocean Basin?
An ocean basin is a deep, wide depression in the Earth’s surface that contains the ocean. They all vary in size, as each ocean is a different size, and they don’t start right at the coast line. The largest ocean basin is the one that holds the Pacific Ocean. It covers an area of about 155 000 000 square kilometers (about 60 square miles). They are also no older than 200 million years old!

What is a Continental Shelf?
A continental shelf is the area between the coast and the edge of the ocean basin is actually submerged part of the continent. These features gradually slope away from the land before dropping steeply downward at the shelf edge. Continental shelves are the narrowest along the coastlines with high mountains, where the plates are moving together.

What are the 5 Major Oceans?
Before going into detail about the features of an ocean floor, why don’t we learn what our 5 major oceans are? The 5 major oceans are the Pacific Ocean, which is also the largest, Atlantic Ocean, which is second largest, Indian Ocean, which is third largest, Southern Ocean, which is fourth largest, and the Arctic Ocean, which is the smallest of all 5 oceans.

What are the Features of the Ocean Floor?

The features of the ocean floor include a continental shelf, continental slope, abyssal plain, trench, ocean basin, and ocean ridge.

Facts About Oceans
By Paige Grabmuller
Topic 4- The Oceans
What is a Continental Slope?
A continental slope starts at the edge of the continental shelf, and plunges at a steep angle towards the ocean floor. These slopes are usually less than 200 km wide descend to about 3 km. Beyond the base of the continental slope is the floor of the ocean basin.

What is an Abyssal Plain?
Abyssal plains are the flat areas between the high mountain ranges and the deep trenches on the ocean floor. These plains are remarkably flat, and are formed of thick deposits of sediment, in some places up to 1 km deep. The sediments that form abyssal plains come from the continents, brought to the oceans by rivers. They are then brought down to the ocean floor by underwater landslides, started by earthquakes, or something as simple as the force of gravity. Massive amounts of mud and sand slump down the slopes edges of the continents from time to time.
What is a Trench?
A trench is a narrow, steep-sided trench that are along some margins of the sea floor. They are formed where the edge of the tectonic plate pushes against the edge of a continental plate. The ocean plate is forced to bend steeply down beneath the continental plate, which is heavier, as the plates move together. Most of our trenches occur around the perimeter of the Pacific Oceans. The deepest trench, called the Marianas Trench, is deep enough to fully submerge an object as tall as Mount Everest. That’s 11 km below sea level!
What is an Ocean Ridge?
Ocean ridges are long undersea mountain chains that run along the center of the oceans. These ridges are the youngest areas of the ocean floor and are still being made by volcanic eruptions. Lava flows from these ridges, quickly hardening into new plate material that pushes the tectonic plates farther apart. These features are more than 1000 km wide and rise 1000-3000 km above the ocean floor.
The amount of salt
in an ocean is called
salinity. The most common salt found in the ocean is sodium chloride, which is our table salt. The next most plentiful salts are made up of sulphates, magnesium, calcium, and potassium.
The ocean with the highest salinity is the Atlantic Ocean. There is a higher salinity in the subtropics, and lower salinity in rainy belts near the equator.
- Textbook
- http://marinebio.org/marinebio/facts/
- http://savethesea.org/STS%20ocean_facts.htm
- http://www.motherearthnews.com/nature-and-environment/fun-surprising-facts-about-the-oceans.aspx
- https://sealevel.jpl.nasa.gov/education/stuffforkids/oceanfacts/
- http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/earth/oceans.html
- https://images.google.com/
An estimated 50-80% of all life on earth is found under the ocean surface, and the oceans contain 99% of the living space on the planet. Less than 10% of that space has been explored by humans. 85% of the area and 90% of the volume constitute the dark, cold environment we call the deep sea.
90% of all volcanic activity occurs in the oceans.
The top ten feet of the ocean holds as much heat as the entire atmosphere.
Blue whales are the largest animals on our planet ever (exceeding the size of the greatest known dinosaurs) and have hearts the size of small cars.
The deep sea is the largest museum on Earth: There are more artifacts and remnants of history in the ocean than in all of the world’s museums, combined.

The oceans occupy nearly 71% of our planet's surface
More than 97% of all our planet's water is contained in the ocean
The average temperature of the oceans is 2ºC, about 39ºF
Water pressure at the deepest point in the ocean is more than 8 tons per square inch, the equivalent of one person trying to hold 50 jumbo jets.
Water pressure at the deepest point in the ocean is more than 8 tons per square inch, the equivalent of one person trying to hold 50 jumbo jets.
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