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景觀都市主義

Landscape Urbanism & Performative Surface
by

Cheng-Luen Hsueh

on 24 October 2014

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Transcript of 景觀都市主義



WEST 8 Shell Project
EASTERN SCHELDT STORM SURGE BARRIER
東斯海爾德河 風暴潮屏障景觀設計
1990-1992, Zeeland, The Netherlands

阿市 東半島住宅區(BORNEO-SPORENBURG)
1993-1996, Amsterdam, The Netherlands




James Corner Field Operations

Performative approach

NY Highline
非線性/ 非超大結構/ 微型關係的總和
non-linear.
not a superstructure, but a sum of micro-relations linking the many localities along networks of transportation and communication. 交通與通訊網絡 聯結
複雜/動態的 互動場域
complex and dynamic field of interaction similar to an ever-changing weather map stretched 擴展的氣象雲圖
基盤架構 先是社會性的 才是工程性的
The infrastructure is social before it is technical.
flows, activities, relations and events
流動、活動、 關係、事件
透過運動、協商、辯論... 隨時轉移視角
shift view-points constantly by means of movement, negotiation and debate
Landscape urbanism:
1. 自然是複雜、自我組織的系統
nature as a complex, self-organizing system
2. 參與城市 作為一種複合的生態系統
engage the city as a hybrid ecology
3. 有創造性/臨時性的生態系統
文明與自然之間沒有理想的平衡
creative and temporal ecology
no ideal equilibrium between culture and nature
4. 涵蓋所有屬於地景的 包括基盤、建築物....
include all that is in the landscape – infrastructure and buildings etc.
bridge between landscape design, landscape ecology and landscape planning on various scales
不同尺度下 橋接不同領域
5. 電腦輔助mapping 社會/生態的 力量/影響
computer mapping social and ecological forces of complex dynamics of the landscape
6. 基地與program 作為創造的主題與機會
site and program as creative subjects and opportunities,
privileging a rational understanding of site forces over the designer’s subjectivity
理性考量基地條件 優先於 設計者主觀
7. 地景作為最根本/終級的系統
the landscape as the ultimate system
a template for urbanism. 都市的樣板
It rejects:
1. 花園 作為 景觀建築 的古老暗喩 (換成城市)
the Garden (paradise) as landscape architecture’s ur-metaphor – (replacing it with the City);

2. 景觀作為都市設計 被壓抑/被動的 另一面
the landscape as urbanism’s other, as a repressed, gendered, and passive layer;

3. 恢復道德崇高的自然 來保持自然與文明的平衡
a puritanical nature that needs to be reinstated as such to effect equilibrium between nature and culture;

4. 偏向設計 固定/最終的 物件,或是關於正式的佈局的 美學直覺
designing toward fixed and final objects or aesthetic intuitions regarding formal composition;

5. 形式,意象,景致,象徴 作為設計主要面向
style, image, scene, and symbolism as dominant aspects of design;

6. 新保守主義式的新都式設計 <> 前衛原創性
neo-conservative new urbanism on the one hand and avant-garde originality on the other;

7. 建築或景觀建築設計用來創造獨立物件,膚淺的涵構主義,商業化地點,周邊補償式的工具
architectural and landscape architectural design as the production of isolated objects; superficial contextualism and commercial styling of places whether aloof to, or in some way merely compensating for the instrumentalities of the world around;

8. 現代主義式的規劃、虚偽的控制、去除創意過程的當代規劃方式
modernist planning and its pretence to control and contemporary planning which is devoid of the creative processes common to design processes;

9. McHargian 式自然/文明之間 二元邏輯
a McHargian binary coding between nature and culture.
景觀 作為更大/可操作系統的局部
作為動態/操作的過程 <> 風景式的景觀
landscape as part of a larger, operative system
as process – dynamic and operational,
versus landscape as scene,

區域的概念 是由文化、生態、政治、時間性、經驗等力量共同組成
ideas of regions as comprised of cultural, ecological, political, temporal and experiential forces
表皮 作為 有效能/有作用 的地帶
Surface as Performative Terrain

地景尺度下 表皮如何作用
how do surfaces perform at the scale of the landscape?
less concerned with what things look like
and more concerned with what they can do.
表皮 作為氣候的調解者
Surface as Climatic Mediator

以地貌層級 創造 氣候與水 的多樣性
How do gradations in the landform create climatic and hydrologic diversity?
StossLU: Riverside Park, New Bedford, MA (2003)
FOA: La Gavia Park, Madrid, Spain (2003)
Carlos Ferrater: Barcelona Botanical Garden (1989)
作為基盤架構 的 調解者
Surface as Infrastructural Mediator

How does landform help to mediate between a site and complex infrastructural systems?
作為 過濾的介質
Surface as Filtration Medium

How can surfaces be subdivided and modulated to filter particulates, water, and activity?

分類
Performative Surface Taxonomies

促進不同類型的相互滲透
How can performance typologies be classied to encourage proliferation?

Weiss/Manfredi: Olympic Sculpture Park, Seattle, WA (2007)

FOA: Yokohama Port Terminal, Yokohama, Japan (2002)
JCFO: Downsview Park, Toronto (1999)


JCFO and TEN Arquitectos: Busan Cinema Complex, Busan, Korea (2006)
Reiser + Umemoto: Atlas of Novel Tectonics (2006)


FOA: Phylogenesis (2004)



StossLU: Detroit Works (2010)
Performativity:
process-based planning
for adaptable and dynamic solutions
rather than fixed and static design.
效能/運作式、過程為基礎的規劃來創造可應變、動態的解答

performative: 語言學上
as speech acts, utterances that can perform an act in the
very moment of being uttered, e.g. the utterance ‘I promise’,
thus performing the act of promising.

空間是活的實體 持續在進行的過程中
spaces are living entities of a greater system, and will never be finished, but always be in process.
Not to be mistaken for simply performance events
or interactive devices (although these are also methods of
engaging social processes) 不一定是指表演/互動機制
景觀建築> 表皮 landscape architecture, the surface:
厚的(多層)的水平面 thick 2D
活的載體 承載流動與程序 surface a living carrier of flows and processes
(architectural and planning processes, urban processes, social processes and even biological processes....)

有效能的循環運行
‘performative cycles’ as a way of describing the processes
time-frame different scales of cycles, long-term and short-term, 不同尺度時間
combining top-down and bottom-up is a way of interconnecting the different performative cycles.
結合由上而下/由下而上
landscape as urbanism
透過對既有建成環境的分類 有想像力的重新組織
James Corner: only through a synthetic and imaginative reordering of categories in the built environment might we escape our present predicament in the cul-de-sac of post-industrial modernity, and the bureaucratic and uninspired failings of the planning profession.
逃離 後工業現代都市 囊底路的困境、官僚化規劃專業的失敗

postmodern critiques of modernist architecture and planning -- its inability to produce a meaningful or livable public realm, as an historical construction of collective consciousness, and communicate with multiple audiences.
對現代主義的批判:無力創造充滿意義、可居的公共領域、作為集體意識/與多重參與者對話 有歴史感的建造

1982 Parc de la Villette
landscape as framework for urban transforamtion ( working --> production and consumption)

Bernard Tschumi
medium of urban infrastructure, public events, indeterminate urban futures
programmatic and social change, events

Rem Koolhaas
juxtaposition of unplanned relationships between various park programs
linear voids, programmatic indeterminacy

open-endedness & indeterminacy
horizontal field of infrastructure that accommodate all sorts of urban activities, planned/unplanned, imagined/ un-imagined over time.

The dystopia of the megaIopolis is already an irreversible historical fact, it has long since installed a new way of life, not to say a new nature...
I would submit that instead we need to conceive of a remedial landscape that is capable of playing a critical and compensatory role in relation to the ongoing, destructive commodification of the man-made world.
by Kenneth Frampton, 1980s
在持續破壞、商品化的人為世界中,建議需要新的概念:用來修補的地景,扮演關鍵與補償的角色

Architecture is no longer the primary element of urban order, increasingly urban order is given by a thin horizontal vegetal plane, increasingly landscape is the primary element of urban order.
by Rem Koolhaas, 1998.
建築不再是都市秩序中的主要元素,逐漸是 薄的/水平的植栽平面。地景成為都市秩序中主要的元素


Cedric Price
Potteries Think Belt, 1964
洋流(視覺化) Perpetual Ocean (2005-2007)
懸浮粒子流 ,Paint by Particle, 2012
infrastructural urbanism
Fireworks at Parc de la Villette, sequence diagram

He argues that a place, and thereby the design, must contain a resistance towards the universality of global tendencies, and that this resistance is found in the local. Simultaneously, the design must also incorporate a degree of responsiveness towards these global tendencies, which is the means by which the place can interact and perform at lager scales.
His terminology emphasizes the importance of engaging both local and global/regional processes. (Kvorning)
Jens Kvorning’s ideas of resistance and responsiveness
engaging both local and global/regional processes
local 抵抗/響應 global的趨勢

公共空間作為有效能/過程循環
public space and architectural form as performative and as a process cycle,
It also encourages new connections between different processes thus shaping new comprehensive
process cycles that link across social and biological fields.
新的跨程序/循環/社會/生物 的連結
不確定的傢具/隔間
接近小型景觀尺度(可能過於模仿)
與居家網絡 非正規互動
與都市網絡/都市地貌 共同擴展
形式與網絡 回到傳統的關係
Reiser & Umemoto, in "Atlas of Novel Tectonics" define an architecture diagram of relations as a field waiting for a definition of scale and materiality. That is, its origins are irrelevant to determining its meaning (as opposed to representation). Due to its trans-scalar nature, their later material is what endows translation of specific properties.
形式 尺度、材料性
以地貌層級 創造 氣候與水 的多樣性
以地貌層級 創造 氣候與水 的多樣性
以地貌層級 創造 氣候與水 的多樣性
基盤架構 的 調解者
基盤架構 的 調解者
過濾的媒介
過濾的媒介
不同類型的相互滲透
活動/生活小區
The proposal answered the inherent duality between global systems of transport and exchange and the condition of the specific local sites and thus the necessity to encompass the general functional imperatives of the cruise terminal (as a smoothly functioning link between land and water transport) and the specific civic possibilities suggested by the pier configuration itself. Following from this the project was conceived as an incomplete or partial building, in recognition of the fact that such program frames thresholds in two distinct yet overlapping continuums. Consequently, completion, both physically and virtually, is effected only periodically; in the linkage of terminal to cruise ship or in the closure of the completed urban event. This large shed, though affiliated with its 19th century antecedents, differs in the sense that this proposal engenders heterogeneity through selective perturbations and extensions of the structural frames. This transformation yields a complex of spaces smoothly incorporating the multiple programs.
釜山
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