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Motivation in Sport
Transcript of Motivation in Sport
"The hypothetical construct that is used to describe the internal and/or external forces that lead to initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behaviour."
"Motivation represents one of the most important variables in sport, it is one of the key elements that will facilitate not only performance but also a positive experience in the sport area."
"The direction and intensity of one's effort"
Weinberg & Gould (1998)
What is Motivation?
What Motivates These Individuals?
What Motivates You?
Interview your partner and find out:
What first motivated them to take part in sport/exercise
What motivates them now?
Has their motivation changed? If so, why?
What motivates you?
Interview your partner and find out:
What first motivated you to take part in sport/exercise?
What motivates you now?
Has your motivation changed? If so, why?
What is Intrinsic Motivation?
External rewards aren't the primary motivation
"Intrinsic motivation refers to engaging in an activity purely for the pleasure and satisfaction derived from doing the activity"
"I play for fun"
"It makes me feel good"
Athletes discovering new training techniques and skills
Athletes take part in order to live exciting experiences
Increase Skill Level
An athlete trying to master difficult training techniques
WBA Superlight Middleweight Champion
"Mom said, Floyd you're special"
Entertain the people
I like to entertain the people
I live for me!
"Keep paying. Love me or hate me, you're going to watch me."
If I quit my dad will call me a punk
"When I was 16 I had to provide for myself. I dedicated myself to my craft."
My grandmother believed in me
Professional Tennis player
Arguably the greatest
77 career titles
17 grand slam titles
Considered to be
Olympic gold medalist 2008
7 time Wimbledon Champion
"I love the game"
"I enjoy participating"
Aims to play for many more years
Winning big tournaments
"No better feeling than winning a title."
Legacy - fair, entertained crowd
"A wide variety of behaviours that are engaged in as a means to an end and not for their own sake"
What is Extrinsic Motivation?
"You can do it!"
What are the potential problems with extrinsic motivation?
What if it is given too often?
What if it is not given often enough?
Can it affect intrinsic motivation?
If so, how?
Achievement Motivation Theory
The desire to do well, succeed and reach standards in ones own eyes and the eyes of others
A willingness to persist in behaviour that enables higher standards to be reached despite the possibility of failure
Comes from the individuals personality
Keep carrying on through obstacles and failure
Consistent in individuals
Stable throughout different situations
Need to Achieve
Need to Avoid Failure
Thrive on the challenge
Avoid challenges in case they fail
Slow workers, avoid responsibility
Desire to Succeed
Fear of Failure
What are the benefits of having high achievement motivation?
Think in terms of participation and performance
Desire for Challenge
Seeking challenging opponents
Strive for Excellent Standards & Feedback
Constructive criticism allows them to increase skill acquisition and refinement
Positive Attitudes Towards Success
Lower Fear of Failure
Greater persistence in sporting endeavors
A combination of the above aspects can lead to higher standards of sports performance
It is the motivation to strive for success
"I don't even think about the prospect of not winning - it never occurs to me."
1984 & 1988 Olympic Decathlon
"Negative thoughts lead to negative performances; the connection is as straightforward as that."
Olympic and World Champion
How athletes perceive/explain success and failure
Think of the last time you participated in sport or exercise.
Make a note of your reasons for the outcome
Share them with your table
Success alone does not translate to someone feeling confident/motivated
Failure does not always cause a loss in confidence/motivation
How the outcome is explained by the athlete will determine it's effect on motivation
Is the reason stable or unstable?
Caused by an internal or external factor?
Is it under the athlete's control?
Can they control it?
Why is ability a stable and internal factor?
Why is task difficulty a stable and external factor?
Why is effort an unstable and internal factor?
Why is luck an unstable and external factor?
On your tables, discuss and explain the following...
Which of these areas can be changed most easily in order to increase performance?
By explaining the causes of events, people create an understanding that they take with them into future situations.
You are a coach at a local tennis club and one of the players has just lost his match. Using Weiner's Attribution theory, what factors would you attribute the loss to in order to maintain the player's motivation?
Justify your answer.
Takes away responsibility for the loss away from the player
Maintains self esteem
Restore pride and confidence
Australian Open Semi Final
Post Match Interview
1-0 to Everton
Post Match Interview
"Nerves early on"
"He had momentum"
"I had more early chances"
"He played aggressive tennis"
"My shot made a big difference"
"He was tired"
"A few things weren't going my way"
"We had 21 chances, couldn't score any of them"
"It should have been easy to win"
"We were more dominant"
"Everton created no chances"
"I don't blame individuals"
"Gareth Barry blocked our shot"
"Other top teams are dropping points"
"Good teams don't always win"
Athletes can be grouped in two categories
Effect of Motivation on Performance
How Does Motivation Effect Performance?
Increased performance levels
Better mental state
Pressure to do well creates an excessive training load
Inability to maintain previous performance levels
Athletes who are unsuccessful when trying to meet training and competition demands try harder and harder until they no longer enjoy the sport and stop taking part.
Developing a Motivational Climate
The current environment of the athlete and whether or not it has a positive or negative effect on the athlete
Mastery of Tasks
Emphasis on teamwork/cooperation
attitude, effort &
mistakes are punished
emphasis on competition
highest ability receive attention
effort, persistence &
VARIED TASKS ENCOURAGING THE
AHLETE TO PARTICIPATE, LEARN
AND MAKE DECISIONS
ATHLETES GIVEN RESPONSIBILITY
TO MONITOR AND EVALUATE THEIR
LEARNING AND DECISION MAKING
BASED AROUND INDIVIDUAL IMPROVEMENT
NOT COMPARING TO OTHERS
ATHLETES ABLE TO DEVELOP
SKILLS IN GROUP BASED
BASED AROUND EFFORT AND IMPROVEMENT
ACTIVITIES GIVEN ENOUGH TIME SO
THAT ALL OF THE ABOVE CAN INTERACT
Seaton Burn Football Academy have just lost a game 5-0. When they get back to the changing rooms you ask the players why they think they lost so badly. You receive the following responses...
Billy - "the referee was rubbish! He gave 3 goals that shouldn't have counted!"
David - "They were too big!"
Lee - "They were lucky, the ball always dropped to them"
Mark - "After they scored the first goal, we didn't think we could win and we stopped trying"
Identify and explain which category of attribution each statement falls under.
Which statement will have the most negative effect on motivation, justify your answer.
Create an A3 poster designed to inform students about motivation and how it can affect sports performance. You should include:
A definition of motivation.
Identify and explain the different types of motivation.
Explain their effect on performance/participation
Work in pairs or alone
Use the computers
P2 "Describe motivation and how it affects sports performance"