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how the dopaminergic pathways affect the responses of the brain

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corrine johnson

on 16 January 2015

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Transcript of how the dopaminergic pathways affect the responses of the brain

What are dopaminergic pathways
Dopaminergic pathways are connected systems of neurons that send dopamine, one of the most influential neurotransmitters, to different part of the brain. These pathways affect the responses of the brain ranging from thinking to symptoms of mental illness. There are a total of eight dopaminergic pathways in the brain. the four major ones are the mesolimbic, mesocortical, nigrostriatal, and tuberoinfundibular pathway.
The mesolimbic and mesocortical response to the brain
the mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways are 2 of the main pathways of the 4 major pathways that depends on dopamine. The mesolimbic enables habit formation by linking certain behaviors to the sensation of pleasure.For this reason, it is called the brain's reward pathway. the mesocortical regulates some emotion and motivation.
The tuberoinfundibular response to the brain
The Nigrostriatal response to the brain
the nigrostriatal pathway is defined as the connections between two areas of the brain called the substantia nigra and the striatum. this pathway is also involved in the production of movemnet, as part of a system called the basal ganglia motor loop.
Sources
How the dopaminergic pathways affect the responses of the brain
How does the mesolimbic pathway trigger reward and pleasurable responses ?
Location
Within the central nervous system, the mesolimbic system runs from the ventral tegmental area of the mid brain through the limbic system of the temporal lobe-the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the nucleus accmbens. the mesocortical runs from the ventral tegmentum to the frontal lobes of the brain.
The reward system of the brain modulates behavior through pleasure, operating in tandem with a similar fear and aversion circuit that provides negative feedback for unpleasant situations. when pleasure is experienced, the mesolimbic pathway is activated causing the accumbens to release dopamine. This also activates the emotional and learning circuits as well, linking to positive feelings.
overview of the systems
Response's resulting from the disturbance's of the Mesolimbic and mesocortical system
Dopamine theory of schizophrenia

the dopamine hypothesis states that the principle hallucinations, delusions, and psychosis of schizophrenics results in too much dopamine being activate in the brain, being secreted into the synapses within a certain neutral circuit. As a result of this, it produces this over-stimulation of cells and symptoms. In schizophrenia, the mesocortical tract may be disrupted, leading to irregularities in emotion such as flat effect.
Louis Waine's cats
System of pathways

Location
runs from the substania nigra to the striatum.
How it involves in movement
the substania nigra is the part of the brain that contains the dopamine. the nigrostriatal pathway transports dopamine from the substantia nigra, located in the midbrain, to the striatum in the lower part of the forebrain. The neostriatum (striatum), the primary input port of the basal ganglia, uses dopamine to assist in regulatory movement.
disturbances of the nigrostriatal pathway
Cooperation
The mesocortical and mesolimbic orginate in the midbrain. Dopamine carried to the frontal cortex by the mesocortical tract, and the mesolimbic transmits it to the limbic system.
Parkinson's disease, a degenerative disorder linked to the central nervous system, is linked to the death of neurons carrying dopamine in the tract. Also, the pathological signs do not become evident until the nigrostriatal tract has lost a minimum of dopamine capability.


Another disease called tardive dyskinesia is linked to the side effect of anti-psychotic drugs, which are used to treat mental disorders like schizophrenia. This is because such medications block dopamine receptors that pathways like the nigrostriatal tract carry.
tuberoinfundibular pathway runs from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland. This pathway sends signals regulating the secretion of hormones. It regulates the release of the hormone prolactin and is related to the maternal responses and hormonal changes during pregnancy.
image of location
disturbances of the tuberoinfundibular pathway
some anti-psychotic drugs block dopamine in this pathway , which can cause an increase in blood prolactin levels (hyperprolactinema) . This also cause abnormal lactation, disruptions to the menstrual cycle, vision problems, headaches, and sexual dysfunction.
lactation of breast
www.wisegeek.com

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dopaminergic_pathways

imgur.com/gallery/15A60

neuroscience.mssm.edu/nestler/brainRewardpathways.html


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