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Operation Fortitude

Operation Fortitude, through a series of double agents, deceptions, and feints, enabled the successful invasion of Normandy at D-day and caused Hitler to hold back 7 SS Panzer Divisions as well as other troops, thinking the major invasion was still to com
by

Margaret hart

on 2 May 2010

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Transcript of Operation Fortitude

Operation Fortitude Goal: Persuade Hitler to put his forces
where they would cause the least
interference with OVERLORD and
to deceive the enemy of OVERLORD's
strength, timing, and objective. "All war is based on deception."
-Sun Tzu Two Parts: I. Compel Hitler to keep 27 divisions
in Denmark, Norway, and Finland. II. Make Germany believe the First United States
Army Group (FUSAG) is assembling in Southeastern
England and preparing for a large invasion at the
Pas de Calais. Main Components of FORTITUDE XX Committee Deception operation by the
British military intelligence arm
(MI5) German spies were sent to spy on
England.
Caught by British
Turned to Double Agents XX Committee or the Double Cross Committee was created to run this Operation GARBO BRUTUS Juan Pujol - Catalonian Spaniard
Acted as a German spy
but was really making up
his own information to
deceive Germany
Convinced England to let him
join them
27 fictitious sub-agents under him
Awarded Iron Cross by Hitler himself
Roman Czerniawski
Polish airforce officer who was captured by Germany and told to spy on England
Offered services to MI5
Assigned to lowlands of Scotland

ULTRA The Enigma The British Code Breaking Operation Developed by German
engineer Dr. Author Scherbius Germans took it for encrypting
messages and thought the code
was unbreakable. Polish mathematician broke the code
in 1932 and gave it to Britian The XX Committee now knew what
information, from the "agents",
the Abwehr believed FORTITUDE NORTH Norway Make the Germans believe that the Allies will land in Norway. Agents: http://webs.schule.at/website/Megacities/Europe_en.htm GARBO Five of his subagents were
"stationed"in Scotland
and Northern Ireland
to report on the
4th British Army. BRUTUS He was spying on the Polish
Formations attached
to the 4th Army. All the agents were verifying one another to help the German's believe
that a full size British army and a corp-sized unit of US troops (total of
90,000-180,000 men) were stationed in the North. http://www.historynet.com/world-war-ii-double-agents-d-day-victory.htm http://www.redakcja.newsweek.pl/Tekst/Spocznij/533967,Polish-bond-no1.html http://math.arizona.edu/~dsl/enigma11.htm http://math.arizona.edu/~dsl/enigma28.htm Physical Deception English radio units were allowed to transmit
messages about the British unit's "routine matters".
- some units were fictional

The Enigma enabled the Allies to know what the abwehr believed.


Wireless Deception In reality...... troops were moved South for D-day, but the
radio traffic said they were still headed to Norway Moved extra ships to the Frith of Forth

The Royal Air Force moved medium bombers
and fighters to Scotland.

Colonel Rory MacLeod, WWI veteran, was sent to
Scotland to command an army that didn't exist:
the Brititsh 4th Army.

Flooded the airwaves with fake
requests for rock climbing and cold
weather materials, permission for a major
attack on Norway, and even social news such
as 4th Army football matches. http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=148655&start=15 http://www.eastlothianatwar.co.uk/opfn.html Did it all work? Germany did not believe everything
involved in Fortitude North, but they did
believe that by May, 79 divisions were headed to Norway, and likewise, Germany
moved some of their troops to block the attack.
FORTITUDE SOUTH Pas de calais Best location for a massive Allied invasion. http://www.normandyapartment.co.uk/location.htm Two Points Germans Must Believe:
1. The main Allied assualt will be at the Pas de Calais
(45 days after Normandy).


2. The assualt would happen once Germany's forces
were committed to the attack at Normandy. http://www.matematiksider.dk/enigma_eng.html Agents

Garbo His 27 agents, at one point,
reported from the South or East
of England
Gave Germany false information on
organizational structures, readiness,
and locations of all the army groups
in England.
Reported on the build up of the FUSAG
and Wireless deception The XX Committee convinced
Eisenhower to let Garbo leak news
that an invasion at Normandy was
hours away, but by the time the news
was received, the first waves of troops
were already on the Normandy beaches. At the time,Germany thought there were 34 divisions in Southern England (11 were actually imaginery). Physical
deception General George S. Patton Dummies http://history.army.mil/books/wwii/7-8/7-8_20.htm http://www.generalpatton.org/D-Day/Patton_Dday.htm http://www.generalpatton.org/D-Day/Patton_Dday.htm http://www.generalpatton.org/D-Day/Patton_Dday.htm Bombings The Allies bombed areas in
Pas de Calais
to make it appear like
preinvasion preparations. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1230025/google-earth-second-world-war-amazing-arerial-images-taken-daring-Allies-revealed-Hitlers-weapons.html http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1230025/google-earth-second-world-war-amazing-aerial-images-taken-during-Allies-revealed-Hitlers-weapons.html They also created....
a dummy landing craft with lights
a dummy radio antennae
and at the end of May, they sent an actor
who resembled Field Marshal Montgomery
(command of 21st Army Group- main assualt
force for Normandy) to Gibraltar. Operation Fortitude: A Success! What Germany Thought was happening... There's an invasion in Norway.
The Pas de Calais is the main target for the Allied
invasion.
Normandy is just to lure the German troops
away from the Pas de Calais.
The major invasion will happen after
Normandy.
90 divisions are stationed in England ready
for the invasion (really only 44 > 20 Br, 23 Us,
1 FR).
BRUTUS reported the FUSAG remained unmoved. garbos sent the abwehr a message saying... On June 6, Garbo had his German
agents stand by for an urgent message
which kept them away from other tasks. "After personal consulation with [various agents],
I am of the opinion, in view of the strong troop
concentrations in SE and E England, that these
operations are a diversionary maneuver designed to
draw off enemy reserves in order to attack in another
place. In view of the continued air attacks on the concentration area mentioned [Pas de Calais and/or
Belgium], which is extremely favorable for this, it
may very probably take place in the Pas de Calais area...." By God's grace, an Abwehr agent in Sweden had come to the same conclusion, and another agent in Stockholm reported that attacks were soon to follow Normandy. June 9 JUne 8 June 8 @ 11:00pm Hitler cancelled his movement orders,
calling off the 1st SS Panzer Division.

4 Panzer and Panzer Grenadier divisions
still made it to Normandy, but 7 other
divisions were held back to defend the
Pas de Calais. June 10 Without
Operation Fortitude,
Operation OverloRd
could not have been
successful.
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