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Thoracic Cavity - Structure and Function
Transcript of Thoracic Cavity - Structure and Function
-Air in the plueral cavity between lungs and the chest wall
-Loss of negative intraplueral pressure
-Collapse of lung
-Pain and difficulty in respiration
Study Blue Inc. (2013). AN2 02: The Lungs and Breathing [Online image]. Retrieved September 12th, 2013 from http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/an2-02-the-lungs-and-breathing/deck/1029287
air force, combined with subglottal pressure and flow rate = determiners of loudness and articulation of sound
• energy force is halved, result in increased use of respiratory muscles
- forced expiration = painful and tiring
- segmented ‘breathy’ speech.
• subglottal pressure and flow rate decreased
• fewer vibrations of the folds
Thoracic Cavity & Pneumothorax
Encased by ribs, sternum & thoracic vertebrae
Two plueural cavities surround each lung
Lungs bound to thoracic cavity via negative pressure between visceral and parietal pleura
Thoracic Cavity Anatomical Structure
Simone Cymbolac - 35 yo F
Hit by motorist whilst cycling
Several broken Ribs
X-ray revealed pneumothorax of left lung
• still be able to produce phonation
• voice = lower intensity
• additional effort required to push the restricted air out
• reduced loudness and an expressionless voice
• little intonation and stress exercised.
Effects on phonation
12 pairs of ribs connecting to sternum and thoracic vertebrae
Ribs elevate, depress and extend laterally
Expansion and contraction of the ribs 'pumps' the lungs enabling breathing
Inspiration = active process
Expiration generally passive process (forced expiration requires innervation of musculature)
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Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Healthy Larynx [Online image]. Retrieved
September 14th, 2013 from http://quest.eb.com/images/132_1216518
Fong, E., Ferris, E. B., & Skelley, E. G. (1989). Body structures and functions (7th Ed.). New York: Delmar Publishers.
Jenkins, G. W., Kemnitz, C. P., & Tortora, G. J. (2007). Anatomy and phisiology, from science to life. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Martini, F. H., Nath, J.L., & Bartholomew, M.S. (2012). Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology (9th ed.). San Fransisco: Benjamin Cummings.
Nucleus Medical Media. (2010). Larynx [Online image]. Retrieved September 14th,
2013 from http://ebsco.smartimagebase.com/larynx/view-
Nucleus Medical Media. (2009). Larynx with Hyoid Bone, Tracheal
Cartilage and Trachea[Online image]. Retrieved September 14th, 2013 from
O’Rahilly, R., Muller, F., Carpenter, S., & Swenson, R. (2004). Basic human anatomy: A regional study of human structure [Online Textbook]. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~humananatomy/part_4/chapter_22.html.
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Study Blue Inc. (2013). Phonation structure [Online image]. Retrieved September
14th, 2013 from http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/phonation-
Study Blue Inc. (2013). The lungs and breathing [Online image]. Retrieved September 12th, 2013 from http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/an2-02-the-lungs-and-breathing/deck/1029287
Translation Dictionary. (2008). Vocal folds [Online image]. Retrieved September 14th, 2013 from http://www.translationdirectory.com/articles/article1819.phpstructure/deck/5529294ss
[Untitled illustration of thoracic anatomy]. Retrieved September 12, 2013 from http://www.infohow.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/HB-Anatomy-Thorax.jpg.
[Untitled illustration of inspiration and expiration]. Retrieved September 12, 2013 from http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/940/flashcards/2248940/jpg/respiration1360462594439.jpg.
[Untitled illustration of shared road sign]. Retrieved September 10, 2013 from http://rozeklaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/wisconsin-bicycle-accident-attorney.jpg.
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Normal Larynx Structure
Three main cartilages:
Thyroid cartilage, Cricoid cartilage and
2 Arytenoid cartilages .
Thyrohyoid membrane, Cricothyroid ligament and Cricotracheal ligament.
: Cricothyroid joint and 2 Cricoarytenoid joints
Other important structures:
Vocal Folds- Laryngeal structure
Two sets of vocal folds; False (Ventricular) vocal folds and True vocal folds.
The false vocal folds sit superior to the
true vocal folds.
False vocal folds: passive movement
True vocal folds: air passes through in normal respiration to cause vibration to produce phonation
Rima glottis (glottis): permits voicing.
Phonation is the product of vibrating vocal folds.
Elasticity and Bernoulli effect= vibration
Abduction of vocal folds: The Posterior Cricoarytenoid muscle opens the glottis.
Adduction of vocal folds: Lateral Cricoarytenoid muscle. The two muscles, Transverse arytenoid and Oblique arytenoid are collectively called the Interarytenoid muscles.
Pitch: Changing the rate of vocal fold vibration increases or decreases the frequency, which corresponds to increasing or decreasing pitch.
Increasing Pitch: The Cricothyroid muscle and the Thyrovocalis muscle are tensor muscles. They work in conjunction with each other to stretch and thin the vocal folds,
Decreasing Pitch: The Thyromuscularis muscle is a laryngeal relaxer muscle as it relaxes the vocal folds.
Figure 4. Larynx with Hyoid Bone, Tracheal Cartilage and Trache.a. By Nucleus Medical Media, 2009, http://ebsco.smartimagebase.com/larynx-with-hyoid-bone tracheal-cartilage-and-trachea/view-item?ItemID=2421
Figure 5. Larynx. By Nucleus Medical Media, 2010, http://ebsco.smartimagebase.com/larynx/view-
Figure 6. Phonation structure. By Study Blue Inc, 2013,http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/phonation-
Figure 7. Healthy Larynx. By Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, http://quest.eb.com/images/132_1216518
Figure 8. Vocal folds. By Translation Dictionary, 2008, http://www.translationdirectory.com/articles/article1819.phpstructure/deck/5529294