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ICELAND

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Yuliya Nesterenko

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of ICELAND

ICELAND
Yuliya Nesterenko
Nicolò Muratore
Dumitru Coretchi
Evelyn Hosner
Highest Point: Hvannadalshnukur at 2,110 m
ICELAND
REYKJAVIK
Population:
321,857
One of the world's most sparsely populated countries
The 18th largest island
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Oceanic crust
Be subaerial
Maria Soloveva
I mean, Iceland is Iceland... [Mark Steyn]
East of Greenland
Extensive volcanic & geothermal activity
Westernmost European country;
more land covered
by glaciers than in all of continental Europe
About half of Iceland's land area - mountainous lava desert (highest elevation 2,119 m)
11% is covered by three large glaciers
20% of the land is used for grazing, and only 1% is cultivated
In the 9th–10th century, trees covered about 30 – 40 % of the island.
Nowadays the most prominent are Hallormsstaðarskógur and Vaglaskógur.
The inhabited areas are on the coast (southwest); the central highlands are totally uninhabited
The Gulf Stream's moderating influence
AREA

Total: 103,125 km²
Land: 100,329 km²
Water: 2,796 km²
The climate is temperate, characterized by damp, cool summers and relatively mild but windy winters
Natural resource
Fisheries
Fish is responsible for 40% of the countries export revenues, and employs 7% of the workforce
Renewable Energy
Extensive resources of hydroelectric power and geothermal energy;

Emission-free, sustainable natural resources;

90% of homes in Iceland are heated with geothermal water
Water
Icelandic water is pure, and plentiful;

Water has not been treated with large amounts of chemicals
Diatomite
Demographics of Iceland
Population 313,183
Median age: 35.9 years
female: 36.3 years
male: 35.4 years
0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population
urban population: 93% of total population
Life expectancy at birth:
81 years
Major cities - population REYKJAVIK 198,000
homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norse and Celts 94%, population of foreign origin 6%
Languages
Icelandic, English
Nordic languages
German widely spoken
Literacy
Age 15 and over can
read and write
total: 99%
Lutheran Church of Iceland (official) 80.7%,
Roman Catholic 2.5%,
Reykjavik Free Church 2.4%,
Hafnarfjorour Free Church 1.6%,
other religions 3.6%,
unaffiliated 3%,
other or unspecified 6.2%
Religion Aspect
Young island (20 million of year ago)


From an eruption on the Middle-Atlantic ridge between North American and Eurasian plates


These plates spread at a rate of approximately 2.5 centimeters per year

GEOLOGY
a. Hiberno-Scottish monks
b. NADDODR discovered (snowland)
c. Flokì gave the name of Iceland having seen some drift ice in the fjords.

Uninhabited by humans
a. Called Alþingi (Althing)
b. Assembly with a meeting every year
c. Laws memorized
d. No executive power, feuds often
e. Around 1000 Christianity

Commonwealth
a. After years of feuds
b. Stock fish export
c. Little Ice Age
i. Shorter growing seasons / colder winters
ii. Difficult In raising barley
iii. Trade from continent

NORWAY

a. Cannot export stock fish there

b. 16th Lutheranism

c. 1602- 1786 monopoly of trade

d. 1783 Laki eruption
i. 12, 5 km3 of lava
ii. 9000 wiped out, 80% of livestock

e. 1874 Constitution and Home rule (revised in 1904)

f. 1918 Kingdom of Iceland joined with Denmark by the Danish Crowd, King

DENMARK
1380
a. 9 April 1940 Nazi invade Denmark

b. 10 May 1940 uk invede Iceland, strategic!
i. 25000 troops, u= 0

c. July 1941 control to U.S.

d. 20 May 1944 Republic of Iceland, first president Sveinn Björnsson
i. 97% no more join Denmark
ii. 95% republic
iii. Keynesian fiscal policies
iv. Not stable economy until 1990
v. 1994 join European Economic Area


2 WW
Parliamentary representative

democratic
republic (the oldest in the world)
Prime minister
- head of the country
Executive
power exercised by
government

Legislative power
is vested both the government and parliament (
63
members).
The Judiciary
is independent of the executive and the legislature

Nowadays...
PARTIES
Independence (19 seats)
– Liberal conservative
Social democratic (9 seats)
Progressive (19 seats)
– Liberal, agrarian, centre-right
Left-green
(14 seats)

democratic socialism,
eco-socialism, feminism,
soft euroscepticism, pacifism
Bright future
(6 seats)

Liberalism, green liberalism, pro-Europeanism
Pirats (3 seats)

Pirate Party is a label
adopted by political
parties in different countries
Interesting facts. Explore Iceland.
Worlds' Happiest Country: 9th
The Healthiest People: 1st
Suicide rate: 42
The cleanest country: 9th
Rank by life expectancy: 4
The most beautiful country: 11th
Values, behavior and communication
Importance of independence
and self-sufficiency

Deep sense of community

Attributed to small size and homogeneity of the population and long history in an isolated environment

Work & Communication
Work ethic: „Hard work will pay off.“

Communication: direct in their speech

Homosexuality
Egalitarianism, titles & income
Income inequality:
among the lowest in the world

Provision of noble
privileges, titles and
ranks – prohibited – everyone is addressed by their
first name


Equality
between
sexes is very
high
Family names
Name of the father with adding:
„-son“ (male child)
„-dóttir“ (female child)

Special names:
relation to characters of Icelandic myths, titles of a farm or expressions of landscape

Immigrants?
Can keep their name since 1991
Name-changing?
Once in their life
Marriage?
no „family name“ as we have
Family names
Culture
Mainly
vibrant folk
and
pop
traditions

Topics:
love, sailors, masculinity, hard winters, elves, trolls and other mythological creatures

Popular music:
pop-rock, solo ballads, reggea, indie rock, metal and hardcore

Artists:
Björk
Emiliana Torrini
Islandica
Sigur Rós
MUSIC
Myths and legends
Enthusiastic consumers of literature
Highest number of bookstores per capita
10% of the population publish a book in their life

Early Icelandic literature
Eddas
Skaldic poetry
Sagas
Sagas
Describe events which took place in
Iceland

Focused on
history
(especially about families)

Unknown authors

Popular sagas:
Njáls saga
Grænlendiga saga
Eiríks saga

Media: internet use
Highly developed:
95%
of the population has access

2009:
Iceland ranked on the
1st

place with the highest penetration
of Facebook users
(49,5%)

2013:
Iceland fights against internet pornography to protect children
from child slavery and abuse

Business Culture
Firm
handshake
with
eye-contact
Exchange
business cards
Call

the people by their first name
Direct
speech
Language:
English
Business combined with
pleasure
Dress smartly
(Western expectations)
Meetings are arranged
in advance
Be
honest!
ECONOMICAL FACTORS
South of the Arctic Circle
4,200 km from NYC
Economics of Iceland

Basic economic activities

Settlement of population around the shore

Limited land

Limited population

GDP per capita 32900 €, and
total GDP of 10567.1 mln €.

Crisis 2007-2008

Instable economy but still higher
than EU average

Small size of Icelandic Economy

Agriculture & fishing

Total value of catch in 2012 is close to 1 billion €

Fish products, creates 39% of Iceland’s export

Energy and
aluminum industry

Economic contraction
860 km from Scotland
Doing Business in Iceland
As of 2011, there are
32,500
companies registered in Iceland of which 14,500 (45%) are active
No restrictions
are imposed in Iceland on buying or selling of foreign exchange
Foreign ownership of business is
unrestricted
Corporate income tax rate of
18%
on net income
Currency - Icelandic krona (ISK)
1 EUR = 161.72520 ISK
Full transcript