Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Building Connections: Pronunciation for the School and Workp

No description
by

Minnesota Literacy Council

on 21 April 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Building Connections: Pronunciation for the School and Workp

Thank
You!

Building Connections: Pronunciation for Educational and Professional Settings
MN ABE Summer Institute 2016
Suzanne McCurdy and
Andrea Echelberger

Small Group Discussion
Including pronunciation in English classes is important because…

Some challenges that I’ve encountered in teaching pronunciation have been…

My biggest questions about teaching pronunciation are…

Agenda
The Pronunciation Bandwagon
Communication Scenarios:
Delivering Presentations
Small Group Work
Partner Work
Wrap-Up
Questions and Answers

Pronunciation for Literacy Level Learners
For many literacy level learners, the classroom is their only source for developing their L2 (Strube, 2009)
The bulk of perceptual and phonetic learning appears to take place during the first 6-12 months of extensive exposure of the L2 (Best & Tyler, 2007)
Pronunciation should start in beginning level classes and be integrated into the curriculum so that it is a fundamental part of every English lesson (Darcy, Ewart & Lidster, 2012)
“Pronunciation should not be seen as ‘fixing problems’ but rather as ‘teaching how to speak’.” (Yates, 2012, p. 1)
Instructional Recommendations
Take a systematic approach to pronunciation; allow students to advance through each developmental stage before moving onto the next (Celce-Murcia, Brinton, & Goodwin, 2010; Chela-Flores, 2001; Gilbert, 2010; Yates & Zielinski, 2014)
Pronunciation should be embedded within the curriculum and taught explicitly whenever possible (Darcy, Ewart, & Lidster, 2012; Levis & Grant, 2003; MacDonald, 2002; Yates & Zielinski, 2014)
The teacher must be willing to "sell it" (Gilbert, 2014)
Communication Scenarios:
1) Delivering Presentations
Pronunciation Priorities for Delivering Presentations
Word Stress
Thought Groups

Word Stress
Communication Breakdown Examples
Intended Word

NNS’ Pronunciation

Perceived Word
“suitable” suiTAble “the level”
“written” wriTTEN “retain”
“normally” norMLly “no money”
“upset” UPset “absent”
Word Stress Activities
Low-Literacy
Word Stress Activities
Intermediate
interview computer

Same or different?

Word Stress Activities
Advanced
"We the people, in order to form a more perfect union ..." — 221 years ago, in a hall that still stands across the street, a group of men gathered and, with these simple words, launched America's improbable experiment in democracy. Farmers and scholars, statesmen and patriots who had traveled across an ocean to escape tyranny and persecution finally made real their declaration of independence at a Philadelphia convention that lasted through the spring of 1787.
Thought Groups
“The most convenient focal point for pronunciation instruction; an area of maximum overlap of communicative importance and teachability” (Dalton & Seidlhoffer, 1994)
English speakers tend to store words according to stress patterns; if the stress pattern is wrong the listener will search for stored words in the wrong category (Gilbert, 2014)
Lexical-stress identity often overrides segmental information and can cause false word recognition (Benrabah, 1997)
“The boundaries of tone groups are not arbitrary, but rather reflect the informational intent of the speaker” (Morgan, 1998)
“Infrequent pausing results in longish, poorly delineated thought groups that listeners may have trouble following and may perceive as uncomfortably rapid speech” (Murphy, 2013)
“The important thing is...that they actively think about the need for grouping in order to help listeners follow” (Gilbert, 2009)
Thought Groups Activities
Low-Literacy
245 East Grand Street Apartment #2

Thought Group Activities
Intermediate
A variation on Walking Dictation from Jenn Zoss
Thought Group Activities
Advanced
Imitation:
Voice Quality Settings
The long term postures of the larynx, pharynx, tongue, velopharyngeal system and lips (Esling & Wong, 1983)
“Characteristics of pronunciation that affect entire utterances; an example of voice quality deviance from English norms would be the tight-jawed posture and dentalized tongue body setting that is common in many Chinese EL leaners" (Anderson-Hsieh, Johnson & Koehler, 1992).
If an adult EL learner can be taught the features of English that characterize its voice quality settings, their pronunciation of segmentals should noticeably improve as a result (Esling & Wong, 1983; Jenkins, 2000; Kerr, 2000; Thornberry, 1993).
The kinesthetic feedback that happens with voice quality settings instruction may be more accessible to literacy level learners than auditory feedback (Kerr, 2000).
Voice Quality Settings Activities
Lip-Reading
Imitation: Mirroring
Having a model helps in improving pausing, prominence and use of non-verbals to communicate (Meyers, 2013)
Skills learned in mirroring can be transferred to other situations, such as public speaking (Meyers, 2013)
Mirroring allows learners to practice non-verbal cues, analyze speech and reproduce it (Monk, Lindgren & Meyers, 2004)
Watch this clip and guess who the speakers are, where they are, and what’s happening:
Mirroring: Analyze Language
Arthur: Douglas would you please pass the ketchup?
Doug: The what?
Arthur: The ketchup.
Doug: You mean the ketchup?
Arthur: Educated people pronounce it ketchup.

Process from Goodwin 2001, 2005
Mirroring: Final Product Example
http://mediamill.cla.umn.edu/mediamill/display/157042
Volume Activites:
Breathing Techniques
All Levels
Volume Activities:
Louder, Please!
All Levels
Volume Activities:
Back to Back Dictation
All Levels
Person A: Please share the following
information with your partner:
First and last name
School/Organization
Favorite classroom activity

Person B: Listen and record your partner's information
Delivering Presentations:
Communication Scenarios
2) Small Group Work
Pronunciation Priorities for
Small Group Work
Intonation Awareness
Prominence (Added Stress)
Intonation
Carries a high communicative load in terms of structuring information, providing listeners with prosaic cues, and rapport building between speakers (Kang & Pickering, 2011; Pickering, 2001)
Acts as a “grammar of cohesion” (Wennerstrom, 1998)
People assume that the basic signals of rhythm and melody are a natural part of all human speech, but they are language specific (Gilbert, 2014)
Intonation Activities:
Literacy Level
Intonation Activities:
Literacy Level
Questions vs. Phrases
You like chicken.
You like chicken?

He has three children.
He has three children?

I go now.
I go now?

Excuse me.
Excuse me?
Short Dialogues
Hello.

Hi.

How are you?

I'm fine. And you?

I'm good.
Intonation Awareness Activities
Intonation Activities:
Advanced
Prominence
NNS tend to not stress new information and contrasting information sufficiently (Hahn, 2004)
With explicit instruction, NNS significantly improve use of primary stress (Pennington & Ellis, 2000)
Prominence Activities:
Literacy Level
Contrastive Stress
Prominence Activities:
Intermediate
Listen to the story. Circle the words that stand out.

HODJA'S WIFE AND HIS DONKEY
When his wife died, the Hodja became very sorry, but he mourned for her only a few days. After a while his donkey died and he was even more sorrowful and mourned for him many months. People asked him why and he answered: “When my wife died, they all said, they could find a younger and better one for me, but when my donkey died, nobody offered the same service.”
Emphatic Stress
Dramatic Storytelling
Prominence Activities:
Intermediate
Circle the correct sentence:

1. I really hate SPIDERS. I REALLY hate spiders.

2. I had a TERRIBLE day. I HAD a terrible DAY.

3. Why is it SO expensive? WHY is it so expensive?

4. Why do you always do THAT? Why do you ALWAYS do that?
Prominence Activities:
Intermediate
Hodja’s Wife and His Donkey
Prominence Activities:
Advanced
New Stress
Instructional Level Group Discussion
Small Group Work:
Instructional Level Group Discussion
Sentence Stress
It is essential in English to learn to pay attention . . . to those words in the stream of speech which are [emphasized], since these mark the richest information-bearing units. Listeners who fail to distinguish these are likely to flounder. They are likely to lose even more information if they do not know how to identify information peaks and how to use the information encoded in this distribution (Gilbert, 2008)
“Listeners of English expect more important words to be strong and less important words to be weak. The strong words are the ones listeners pay the most attention to. Contrasting strong and weak words is a basic part of speaking clearly” (Grant, 2010)
Chinese learners of English were found to be "using tonic [i.e. primary] stress on virtually every lexical item, whether it be semantically important or a function word"
(Juffs, 1990)
English is a stress-timed language: stress in a spoken sentence happens at regular intervals and the length it takes to say something depends on the number of stressed syllables rather than the number of syllables itself
(Celce-Murcia, et. al., 2010)
Sentence Stress Activities:
Literacy Level
Sentence Stress Activities:
Literacy Level
Mark is a man.
He has a daughter.
Mark and Margo live in an apartment.


From the classroom of Lisa Vogl
Sentence Stress Activities:
Intermediate
from: Yates and Zielinski, 2009
Sentence Stress Activities:
Advanced
Communicative Scenarios
3) Partner Work
Pronunciation Priorities for
Partner Work
Sentence Stress

Partner Work:
Instructional Level Group Discussion

Syllable-Final Consonant Articulation
“Most studies have focused on syllable final consonant clusters rather than syllable initial consonant clusters because the former are more troublesome to L2 learners” (Nguyen, 1998)
“Deletion and reduction of coda consonant clusters are attested among Vietnamese speakers” (Vu, H. 2014)
Syllable-Final Consonant Articulation
Andrea Echelberger: aechelberger@mnliteracy.org
Suzanne McCurdy: suzanne.mccurdy@gmail.com
References
Thought Group Activities
Advanced
Watch this video clip.
What do you hear and see in the speaker's delivery that makes him an effective public speaker?
Be prepared to share your thoughts.
Explore the differences in voice quality settings between the student's L1 and English.
Give students the opportunity to watch and imitate the mouth movements.

Use mirrors and other students to provide immediate feedback.
In groups of three...
Reflect back on your notes.
Choose one priority area that you feel is the most salient for your learners.
How will you integrate this area into your instruction? What adaptations will you need to make?
If time allows, share any other activities you've successfully used to help your learners practice these areas of pronunciation.
Watch this video clip.
What pronunciation techniques do you hear the speakers utilize to convey meaning?
Be prepared to share your thoughts.
The primary goal of intonation instruction should be communication proficiency rather than teaching the mechanics of intonation" (Levis, 1999; McGregor, Zielinski, Meyers & Reed, unpublished article)
Reflect back on your notes.
Choose one activity that you feel will be helpful for your learners.
How will you integrate this activity into your instruction? What adaptations will you need to make?
If time allows, share any other activities you've successfully used to help your learners practice these areas of pronunciation.
Watch this video clip.
What contributes to the communication break down in this one-on-one exchange?
Be prepared to share your thoughts.
Reflect back on your notes.
Choose one priority area that you feel is the most salient for your learners.
How will you integrate this area into your instruction? What adaptations will you need to make?
If time allows, share any other activities you've successfully used to help your learners practice these areas of pronunciation.
Will be available on the ATLAS website
Effective pronunciation instruction should shift from thinking about teaching intonation to thinking about teaching communicative proficiency (Levis, 1999)
Learners benefit from explicit instruction in phonological forms to help them notice the differences between their own productions and those of proficient speakers in the L2 community (Derwing& Munro, 2005)
Effective instruction directs attention to a very few major patterns and teaches the learners to think in terms of the intention of the speaker in any given speech situation (Allen, 1971)
The highest priority concept to learn is how spoken English calls attention to the point that the speaker most wants the listener to focus on (Gilbert, 2014)
We the people in order to form a more perfect union 221 years ago in a hall that still stands across the street a group of men gathered and with these simple words launched America's improbable experiment in democracy farmers and scholars statesmen and patriots who had traveled across an ocean to escape tyranny and persecution finally made real their declaration of independence at a Philadelphia convention that lasted through the spring of 1787
Intonation
We the people in order to form a more perfect union 221 years ago in a hall that still stands across the street a group of men gathered and with these simple words launched America's improbable experiment in democracy farmers and scholars statesmen and patriots who had traveled across an ocean to escape tyranny and persecution finally made real their declaration of independence at a Philadelphia convention that lasted through the spring of 1787
The primary goal of intonation instruction should be communication proficiency rather than teaching the mechanics of intonation" (Levis, 1999; McGregor, Zielinski, Meyers & Reed, unpublished article)
Communication Scenarios:
1) Delivering Presentations
Watch this video clip.
What do you hear and see in the speaker's delivery that makes him an effective public speaker?
Be prepared to share your thoughts.

Wrap Up
Instructional Level Group Discussion
Reflect back on your notes.
Choose one priority area that you feel is the most salient for your students.
How will you integrate this area into your instruction? What adaptations will you need to make?
If time allows, share any other activities you've successfully used to help your students practice these areas of pronunciation.
Full transcript