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Medieval and Renaissance Europe
Transcript of Medieval and Renaissance Europe
Essential Question: How did Europe change during the Middle Ages?
Setting of Medieval Europe
: What changes occurred in Europe after the fall of Rome?
The collapse of Rome in 476 ushered in a roughly 1,000 year period known as the Middle Ages.
Also known as the
The political and cultural landscape of Europe changed greatly after the fall of Rome.
Numerous Germanic kingdoms dominated the lands
that had once been ruled by the Roman Empire.
developed government and emphasized learning.
lived in small communities and maintained
order through unwritten rules and traditions.
As a result, they did not develop large governments or produce scholarly works.
Few could read or write Latin.
Trade declined. Most city dwellers made their living trading. Lack of trade caused many to move to the country and farm.
Christianity Grows and Spreads
How did Frankish kings help to spread Christianity throughout Europe?
Christian church survived the fall of Rome.
A group of
Germanic people, the Franks
, established a powerful kingdom. They
strengthened Christianity in Europe.
Clovis and Franks
In 486, Frankish leader named Clovis invaded Roman Gaul (France today).
Defeated the last great Roman army.
Defeated other Germanic groups.
Clovis converted to Christianity. Many of his subjects did as well.
786, new ruler. Charles, or Charlemagne.
Established new laws to keep order.
Allowed some conquered peoples to keep their traditional laws.
Reformed and strengthened the Church.
Promoted education of priests, organized Church authority, and made alliances with popes.
Feudalism: A New Social Order
What role did serfs play in feudalism?
Charlemagne died in 814 and his son Louis became emperor.
Louis died, his 3 sons fought each other for control.
signed a treaty in 843 that divided the empire into 3 parts.
split weakened the Frankish kingdom.
decline of Frankish rule led to disorder across Europe.
Vikings terrorized coastal villages.
Europe became a place of constant conflict and warfare.
Emergence of Feudalism
People were looking for protection.
led to creation of a political and social system known as
was based on an agreement between 2 group of nobles-
lords and vassals.
Lord-powerful noble who owned land.
Vassal-lesser nobles that would use pieces of land. These plots were called fiefs. In return for the fief, the vassals served in the lord's court and army.
With an army of vassals, the lord could protect his lands from attack.
Some vassals were warriors known as knights.
The Manor System
: What role did the manor system play in the economic structure of Europe during the Middle Ages?
Europe was lacking a strong government. It was a collection of kingdoms and lands held by high-ranking nobles. There was little trade or commercial interaction. The lands held by the nobles became the center of most economic activity.
Role of the Manor
Main part of a noble's land was called a
center of a manor was the house where the lord and his family lived.
fortified building or castle.
Lord's estate surrounded the manor.
Much of it was farmland and the villages where the peasants lived.
Manor Life and the Economy
Peasants-most were serfs-lived and worked on the manor.
farmed the land
-the economic basis of the manor system.
Serfs were said to be "bound to the soil," which meant they were considered
part of the property. They remained on the land if a new lord acquired it.
Feudalism and manor life had a powerful effect on the medieval European economy.
Land on the manor supplied residents with most things they needed.
Most activity-from farming to woodworking to wine making-took place on the manor.
Manors became worlds unto themselves, and few people ever left the property.
The Age of Chivalry
Knighthood and Chivalry
Knights were expected to live by a code of honor known as
. They had to demonstrate a strong religious faith and willingness to defend the Catholic Church.
Also expected to protect women and the weak.
Supposed to fight against injustice and show courage in every battle they fought.
The battles that knights and other warriors fought ranged from bloody open-field skirmishes to grueling attacks on castles.
Capturing a castle:
Used battering rams and catapults.
Put a castle under siege-tried to prevent food or supplies from entering a castle.
Goal was to slowly starve the people inside and force them to surrender.
Serfdom: Serfs had few rights. Could not move from the manor without permission from the lord. Needed approval to marry, give or sell their land, or change job. Some tried to escape. If after a year and a day, they had not been caught and returned to the manor, they were free.
Orders of Chivalry
Some knights took their devotion to the Church to a higher level.
They became vassals to the pope and formed military religious organizations-known as
orders of chivalry
The best known formed in 1119-Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon, or the Knights Templar.
A Templar swore oaths of poverty and obedience to the Church.
Main duty was to fight the enemies of the Church.
The Templars and other orders of chivalry were formed to fight Muslim armies in and around Jerusalem-Holy Land.
This series of battles was called the Crusades.
Growth of Towns
Around A.D. 1000, town life began to return to Europe.
Powerful lords brought safety and security to numerous regions.
Merchants began to travel more freely and trade their goods.
When merchants settled, builders and other tradespeople gathered around them.
Most towns were dirty, cramped, and busy.
Center of town included market square and a cathedral.
Streets narrow, filthy, and usually not paved.
Most houses made out of wood and easily caught fire.
As a result, entire towns often burned down.
People with the same occupation formed groups called
Many guilds formed by tradespeople-goldsmiths, bakers, weavers, dyers.
Guilds made rules that controlled the quantity and quality of production.
Watched out for their members and worked to make sure everyone found employment.
Chivalry comes from the French word chevalier, a mounted warrior or knight. It initially had a strict military meaning, denoting camaraderie among warriors and expectations of loyalty and courage. Knights never avoided a challenge and always fought fairly. In time, the Church influenced the concept of chivalry. Knights were to be courteous and self-sacrificing. As knights' effectiveness as warriors diminished, chivalry became a standard for good manners and the subject of literature rather than a code of conduct.
: To swear his loyalty, the vassal knelt and placed his hands between the hands of his lord. He then received a written charter, a staff, or a clump of earth to signify his ownership of the fief.Once loyalty was sworn, it was considered a felony, or a serious crime, to break the oath.
: On large manors, the lord's house might be a castle. Sometimes the outer wall of the castle surrounded the entire village of peasant cottages. Farmland lay beyond the village and was divided into strips. Some plots were used as communal pasture for the livestock. Others were set aside for the village priest. Peasants farmed much of the rest of the land for the lord and were allowed to keep a portion of the crops from their own strips.
5 minute video on Feudalism
Medieval Web Sites
At the bottom of society were the peasants. Most peasants were serfs.
Serfs lived and worked on the land belonging to a lord or vassal.
Like vassals, serfs looked to their lords for protection
Church officials and Nobles
3 & 4 min. videos on Clovis and Charlemagne
Stained glass window video-5 minutes.