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The Reformation

AP Euro

Kristin Palomares

on 16 July 2013

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Transcript of The Reformation


Early Calls For Reform
John Wycliffe
Jan Hus
Bible had more authority Church Leaders
Advocated church reform
Denied the pope had the right to worldly power
16th Century
15th Century
Martin Luther
Parents wanted him to be a lawyer
He became a monk after seeing a "vision" from God
Taught scripture at the University of Wittenberg in the German state of Saxony
Johan Tetzel
Appointed to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome
Sold indulgences (get out of hell free cards)
October 31, 1517
People could win salvation only by faith in God's gift of forgiveness
Justification By Faith Alone
All Church teachings should be clearly based on the words of the Bible
Both the pope and Church traditions were false authorities
All people with faith are equal therefore people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them
The Response to Luther
The Pope's Threat
Pope Leo X
Issued the
Edict of Worms
HRE Charles V
Devout Catholic Who opposed Luther's teachings
Controlled the German States
Declared Luther an outlaw and heretic
Declared Luther an outlaw and hereticNo one in the empire could provide Luther with food or shelter
All of Luther's books were to be burned
The Emperor's Opposition
Prince Frederick The Wise Of Saxony
Disobeyed the Emperor and helped Luther
The Peasant's Revolt
In 1524, German peasants, excited by reformers' talk of Christian freedom, demanded an end to serfdom
Peasants raided, pillaged, and burned monasteries
Revolts horrified Luther
Wrote a pamphlet urging German princes to show the peasants no mercy
Princes' crush the revolts and kill 100,000 people
Princes' used Luther's ideas to gain control over the people not because they neccesarily agreed with his teachings
Peasants rejected Luther's teachings and leadership
Issued a decree threatening Luther with excommunication unless he took back his statements
At a bonfire with students, Luther threw the decree into the fire
Summoned Luther to stand trial
Germany At War
While some people genuinely shared Luther's beliefs, others liked Luther's ideas for selfish reasons
Used as an excuse to take Church property and assert independence from Charles V
Those princes who supported Luther signed a protest against the Pope's declaration of allegiance. Eventually, the term Protestant was applied to Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches.
Charles V went to war against the Protestant Princes in order to keep his subjects Catholic
In 1547, Charles defeated the Protestants but felt that fighting would continue so....
He declared that each ruler would decide the religion of his own state
The Reformation Continues
Huldrych Zwingli
Began religious reform in Switzerland
Catholic Priest from Zurich
Influenced by Erasmus's idea of Christian Humanism
1520: Openly attacked abuses of the Church
Pushed for personal faith and more control over the Church
Died during a battle between Swiss Protestants and Catholics
John Calvin
Institutes Of Christian Religion
Expressed ideas about God, salvation, and human nature
Men and women are sinful by nature
Humans cannot earn salvation (like Luther)
Predestination: God has preselected who will be saved
Calvinism: Religion based on his ideas
Believed that the ideal government was a theocracy (a government controlled by religious leaders)
1541: Protestants in Geneva, Switzerland, asked Calvin to lead their city
Ran according to strict rules
Everyone was required to attend religion classes
No one wore bright colors or played cards
Authorities would imprison, excommunicate, or banish those who broke the rules
Anyone who preached different doctrines would be burned at the stake
Viewed as the model city of highly moral citizens
John Knox
Visited Geneva
Scottish preacher
Put Calvin's ideas to work
Each community church was governed by a group of laymen called elders or presbyters
Calvinsim became the official religion
Desposed of their Catholic ruler, Mary Queen of Scots, in favor of her infant son, James
Followers of Knox are known as Presbyterians
Baptized only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian
means "baptize again"
Taught that church and state should be separate
Refused to fight in wars
Shared all possessions
Viewed as radicals by both Catholics and other Protestants
Ideas influenced the Amish, Quakers, and Baptists
2 min
• Thomas More
• John Wycliffe
• B.A.D.
• Erasmus
• More
• Johan Tetzel
• 95 Thesis
• Pope Leo X
• Charles V
• Edict of Worms
• Frederick the Wise of Saxony
• German Peasant Revolt
• Peace of Augsburg
• Zwingli
• John Calvin
• Predestination
• John Knox
• Anabaptists

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