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Rachel McSwain

on 1 November 2016

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Transcript of Reformation

long term effects of the reformation
New types of Christian churches
War and thousands of deaths
Bible more easily accessible
Colonization of the U.S.
Questions the Church's "truths" and coming up with own using reason and logic

Martin Luther
Diet of Worms
John Calvin


English Reformation
Challenged the Catholic Church
Wrote the 95 Theses (List of 95 ways he disagreed with the Catholic Church)
Excommunicated (kicked out) from the church
Created Lutheranism (1st Protestant denomination)

Diet = formal meeting
Said ML was a heretic
and forbid anyone to defend or follow him, or read his writings
Gave ML the opportunity to recant (or take back) what he had said, but he would not.
Studied ML’s ideas, used them to create Calvinism
Believed in predestination
(the idea that God has already decided your fate)
Also believed that the congregation should control the church

Background on ML
Had a tough childhood
Dad wanted him to be a lawyer, but he studied philosophy instead
Became a monk, then a priest
Cared for lots of children
Probably died of a heart attack
The goal of the reformation was to make changes to the Catholic Church.

The church would not change.
This led to the creation of new denominations, or branches of Christianity.
King Henry VIII
Heresy = religious opinion that is opposed to the teachings of the church
Indulgences = These were ‘certificates’ produced in bulk that had been pre-signed by the pope which pardoned a person’s sins and gave access to heaven.
Indulgences became a big deal because they were being sold by Pope Leo X to pay for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica
John Calvin
Sometimes called the Catholic Reformation
Period of Catholic revival (trying to make it strong/popular again) in response to the Reformation
Introduced to re-claim "lost souls" from the Protestants
Why would ML disagree with this?
More about Indulgences...
If you knew that you had sinned you would wait until a pardoner was in your region selling an indulgence and purchase one. Then, the pope, being God’s representative on Earth, would forgive your sins and you would be pardoned.

This industry was later expanded to allow people to buy an indulgence for a dead relative who might be in purgatory or Hell and relieve that relative of his sins. By doing this you would be seen by the Catholic Church of committing a Christian act and this would elevate your status in the eyes of God.
In other words, they were reallyyyy trying to make $$$.
English Reformation started in the reign of Henry VIII (8th).
Henry VIII decided to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, after she had failed to produce a male heir to the throne (have a baby boy).
He had already decided his next wife would be Anne Boleyn.

However, a divorce was not a simple issue.
Henry VIII was a Roman Catholic and Catholics did not recognize or support divorce.
Those who were widowed were free to re-marry; this was an entirely different issue. But husbands could not simply decide that their marriage was not working, divorce their wife and re-marry. The Roman Catholic Church simply did not allow it.

If Henry VIII went ahead and announced that as king of England he was allowing himself a divorce, the pope could excommunicate him. This meant that under Catholic Church law, your soul could never get to Heaven. To someone living at the time of Henry, this was a very real fear, and a threat which the Catholic Church used to keep people under its control.

Henry made a special appeal to the pope to get a divorce
- called a "Papal Dispensation". This meant that the pope would agree to Henry’s request for a divorce because Henry was king of England (but still banned divorce for others).

The pope said no, so Henry broke England away from the Catholic Church and placed himself as head of the Church of England
and in that sense, in his eyes, his divorce was perfectly legal.
Full transcript