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Biodiversity, Evolution, Species Interactions, and Population Control

Miller Chaps 4 and 5
by

Michael Stano

on 11 October 2016

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Transcript of Biodiversity, Evolution, Species Interactions, and Population Control

Evolution, Biodiversity
Species Interactions, and
Population Control

What is Biodiversity
Diversity within the species level,
and diversity above the species level
Genetic diversity
Habitat diversity
Species diversity
How to measure species Diversity?
What is a species
a population of organisms that
naturally breed and produce
fertile offspring
Shannon Diversity Index - formula to derive numerical explanation of species diversity
species richness - number of species.
species eveness - percentage of each species
species dominiance - a description of which
species has the greatest biomass
What factors that increase biodiversity?
lower elevation
lower latitude
complex habitat
stable climate
infrequent disturbances
evolution
How do we
get new species?

Evolution
Natural Selection
Speciation
Populations evolve
not individuals
More fit indviduals, or individuals with a trait that enhance
their ability to survive and produce offspring with the same traits
differential reproduction
genes mutate
genetically isolated,
interbreeding organisms
Extinction
Stabilizing selection
Directional Selection
Disruptive Selection
Human babies - weight
Siberian Huskies -
muscles
grey hounds - speed
Horses - small to big
Selects the norm
affects the extremes
acts against the norm
Welsh grass near copper mines
geographic isolation
reproductive isolation
Endemic species - found in only one area
madagascar - Sooglossidae
Background extinction - 1-2 species per year
Mass extinction - 25% to 70% of species
What roles do species
play in ecosystems?
Generalist vs. Specialist
Broad niche, eat a variety
of food, wide env. conditions,
live in many places
yanni, racoons, rats
narrow niche, live in one habitat, narrow climate range
giant panda
fewer competitors in stable conditions
Changing environmental
conditions favor generalists
New Species
native
nonnative
indicator
Keystone
foundation
Specific Roles of Species
invasive, alien, exotic
provide early warnings of damage
to a community or an ecosystem
have a large effect on the types and
abundances of other species in the
ecosystem
shapes communities by creating and
enhancing their habitats in ways that
benefit other species
naturally occuring to the area
Fanwort
Japanese Knotweed
purple loosestrife
Cane toad - Australia
to defeat Cane beetle
European Rabbit in Australia
Grey jay - canada - climate change
Winter Flounder - Long Island
oyster in chesapeake bay
kelp forest in Alaska
Sea otter - keystone
How do species interact?
Competition due to limited resources
The greater the niche overlap the more fierce the competition
Competitive Exclusion Principle - I am better than you are at getting
the resource so leave, change, or die
Interspecific comeptition
Predation
Parasitism
Mutualism
commensalism
Direct competition for resource
Predator-prey relationships
must feed on living organisms
Predators - ambush, and pursuit
Predator - prey can drive evolution
Coevolution
Cardinal and Brown Headed Cowbird
One species feeds on the body or, energy used by, another organism
Bot Fly
loa loa
two species behave in a way to benefit
both
interaction that benefits one species
but has little or no effect on the other
Interactions between species that share limited resources
Moths and bats
Natural Selection and Competition
Kids in a candy store?
The anoles of South America
100 species in the Caribbean
Natural selection can lead to resource partitioning
Competing species evolve traits that allow them to used
shared resources at different times, places, or ways
What limits the growth of populations?
How are populations different?
distribution
numbers
age structure
density
Population Dynamics
Distribution
how individuals are distributed within a area
clumped
uniform
random
most species are clumped
resources vary in availability, so species cluster
where the resources are
protection in numbers
easier to find scattered resources
maximizes access to scarce resources
creosote bush - allelopathy
pretty rare - may be due to
seed distribution
Age Structure
The proportion of individuals
at various ages
pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post- reproductive
Depending on where the population
lies will determine if it grows, shrinks,
or remain stable
Population Growth all in one graph

Biotic potential
Environmental resistance
carrying capacity (K)
logistic growth
}
reproductive time lag
die back and crash
Reproductive patterns and survivor ship curves
type 1 - high survival rate of the young, live out most of their expected life span and die in old age.
type 2 - relatively constant death rate throughout their life span. Death could be due to hunting or diseases. coral, squirrels, honey bees and many reptiles
type 3 - found in species that have many young, most of which die very early in their life. Plants, oysters and sea urchins
R - selected or opportunist
many offspring
reproduce and disperse rapidly
boom and bust population
bacteria, rodents, frogs, insects
k - selected or competitors
reproduce later in life
small number of offspring
long life spans
mature slowly, groups
humans, mammals, swordfish
Population Density
Density-dependent
Density-independent
predation
parasitism
disease
competition
ex. increase of population
increases disease transmission
abiotic factors that control
population regardless of density
storms
fires
drought
severe cold
Genetic Diversity
in large populations enough diversity,
loss of few individuals make no difference
in small populations loss of few individuals
makes up for a lg diversity
Founder effect
Demographic bottleneck
Genetic Drift
Inbreeding
few individuals become
geographically isolated
low genetic diversity may threaten
survival of population
few individuals survive a catastrophe
which decreases genetic diversity
Drastic changes in environmental conditions can sometimes cause drastic changes to the gene pool of the population, and loss of alleles
individuals within a small population
mate with each other
Northern Elephant Seals
and hunting in 1890
Amish and
hexadactyl
Cheetah's are all almost
homozygous - can accept
skin grafts from any other
cheetah
Sorraia horse
Ecological Succession
is a change in species compositions of a community, often in response to a disturbance, but sometimes resulting from the colonization of previously uninhabited areas
Succession
Kelp is a Foundation
species
Provides habitat for other species
E. coli
Lives in the human intestinal tract...
Acacia Trees and Ants
Cattle Egret eats insects disturbed by buffalo
resource partitioning
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