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Transcript of Water
-Laws could be passed to regulate kelp harvesting in the pacific
-Special care can be taken to prevent toxins and nutrient run-offs from getting into the water
-Fishing limits should be set to prevent overfishing
Major Biomes/ Food Webs
Biotic and Abiotic factors/
bioaccumulation and biomagnification
Endangered and extinct species
Carbon and Nitrogen Cycle/ Biodiversity
The Role Of Humans
Water (Freshwater and Ocean)
By: The freshwaters
Aman, Abijith, Neha, Anisha, Divya, Kesiya
Ocean acidification biome: Arctic and North Pacific Ocean
Zebra Mussel biome: St. Lawrence river, Canada
Cod Fishery biome:
Kelp forest biome: The Pacific Coast
Great Lakes biome: Boreal Shield/Mixedwood Plains
Bioaccumulation/Biomagnification Ocean acidification: Carbonic acid intake by small marine life, which goes up the food chain and affects fish that eat the smaller marine life such as shellfish. Carbonic acid stunts growth of smaller marine life.
Ocean acidification: There are no endangered species due to ocean acidification yet, but a projection shows, oceans will become corrosive by 2050 if CO2 intake by oceans continues, which affects all life on earth.
Humans are being affected as our water supplies because of clogged water intake pipes.
Ocean Acidification: We are causing it because of our large use of fossil fuel that emits CO2 causing ocean acid. We have started some alternative environment-friendly sources of energy, such as Solar, Hydro, Wind, etc.
Humans are being affected as our water supplies because of clogged water intake pipes. We are spending a lot of money each year on cleaning out the zebra mussels, but they still come back.
- Many Big birds such as heron and the eagle rely on salmon for food
- Salmon's main prey are small fish such as herring and small creatures such as shrimp
- The main biotic factors in
an aquatic ecosystem are Disease (bacterial, fungal, and viral) , Decomposition, and Competition
- Diseases are known to lower the oxygen levels in the water
- Degrade water quality by concentrating toxins, and altering nutrients within the food web
- The atlantic salmon are considered as an invasive species
- The Asian carp is also an invasive species known for attacking salmon in BC
- The pacific salmon is endangered
- Habitat change and other human-caused harms is one of the causes
- Restoring salmon to these areas would be vital in the food web
Human activity such as:
Overfishing predators, Toxin leaks and rising temperatures all contribute to the disappearance of kelp in the Pacific.
- ever since Atlantic salmon were extirpated, they have been working to restore them
- Scientists can now distinguish the difference between farmed and natural salmon
-The salmon in Maine, 940 salmon have returned in 2007 and a total of 1900 in 2008
used for photosynthesis, which is why Kelp forests grow relatively close to the surface of the water (15-40 m).
Kelp forests thrive in temperatures below 20oc. If the water is too hot kelp will be scarce.
: like sea urchins, fish, and sea snails all feed off of, and help to regulate kelp in the pacific
Pacific Kelp Forest Biome
Kelp forests are at even more of a threat in comparison to ecosystems further out into the ocean because they form relatively close to land, near coastal areas.
have been found in kelp near San Diego Bay, CA most likely due to all the ship yards and marinas nearby.
- The population of the Atlantic salmon has also been heavily damaged
- The main threat is overfishing
- It was noticed in the 20th century that the salmon population was decreasing
- Between the time period of 1979 and 1990, the amount of catches of salmon dropped from 4 million to 700,000
- Also, Humans apply apply toxins to farmed fish to grow them faster
- Farmed salmon have been genetically modified to grow faster
- Farmed Salmon have a tendency to escape pens many times
Sea otters, abalone, and rockfish are all endangered species that rely on the kelp forests for food.
If the kelp forests continue to disappear, these species will be at even greater risk of extinction.
Oceans themselves are natural carbon sinks.
According to Wild Life Trusts, kelp forests alone capture approx. 75% of the net carbon fixed annually in the sea.
"The carbon Cycle is what makes the ocean acidic because of the high levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. The CO2 is absorbed by the oceans and the acid formed stunts the growth of shellfish and other small marine life. "
Living organisms (fish, insects, algae etc.)
Pollutants travel through the food chain.
Spiny Water Flea
Lake Erie Water Snake (previously endangered)
Redside Dace (endangered)
American Eel (endangered)
Lake Sturgeon (endangered)
Atlantic Salmon in Lake Ontario (extirpated)
Manufacturing of goods causes pollution