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Ch. 2 SPAINS EMPIRE IN THE AMERICAS

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Johanna French

on 23 August 2015

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Transcript of Ch. 2 SPAINS EMPIRE IN THE AMERICAS

Florida discovered- 1513 “
Pascua florida
” Easter/feast of flowers
Juan Ponce de Leon
Looked for gold for 5 DECADES!
Battled disease, local resident tribes and starvation


French settlers arrive in area

French pirates (bucaneers)- want Spanish treasure ships

Spain came back-to drive the French out


1565 established lonely post St .Augustine. Oldest European in the United States

Nahua People- Central Mexico (Mexica/Aztec Empire-
wealthy and powerful

Cortes-conquer the Aztecs
600 soldiers
17 horses
numerous dogs
10 cannons

Other Nahua-help conquer the Aztec

1519- Hernando Cortes arrives in Southeastern Mexico

Tabasco territory (Aztec)— resisted

no match for Spanish weapons

Native Americans surrendered and gave them 20 women

Dona marina- Malinche— translator and guide for Cortes
SPAINS EMPIRE IN THE AMERICAS
1500s and 1600s-Spanish conquered Central / North America

Spanish Language, religion, and architecture
influence America

Spanish were the first European settlers in the Americas


A NEW EMPIRE
Explorers want new colonies for Spain
Motivation: Gold, Silver, Land

Conquistadors: The Conquerors

Caribbean region islands
Coast of Central/South America
Mexico/South America

Cortes subdues the Aztecs
Aztec Emperor
Montezuma
Thought Cortes was an armor clad God

Towering temples, elaborate engineering works-fresh water system
Cortes: Few friends
Enemy of Native Americans and many Spanish
Many tried to arrest him
May have killed his wife
Ruthless with Spanish enemies
Hanged a conspirator from a window

Spanish forced the Aztec to mine gold and silver

1520-Aztec rebellion (stoned Montezuma) repelled the Spanish invaders

Could not Stop Disease… small pox and measles

1521-invaders sacked and burned Tenochtitlan and Aztec surrendered

Spanish Pattern of Conquest
-Modeled after reconquest of southern Spain
Moors (Muslims in North Africa that occupied Spain for centuries)
-Spain conquered the Moors in 1400s and imposed Spanish culture


Peninsulares
”—Spanish settlers
mixed with Native women
-
"Mestizo"
(mixed Spanish/Native American)

intermarriage YET oppression
Spanish exploit people and land of precious materials
Labour system -
encomienda
—natives farmed, ranched or mined for Spanish landlords


“Tell me, by what right or justice do you hold these Indians in such a cruel and horrible servitude? why do you keep them so oppressed and exhausted, without giving them enough to eat or curing them of the sicknesses they incur from the excessive labor you give them? Are you not bound to love them as you love yourselves? Don’t you understand this? Don’t you feel this?"

The Conquistadors Push North
Conquistadors: wealthy, poor, second sons without inheritance seek wealth and adventure

Europeans and men from Asia, Africa, and Europe…
soldiers, artisans, clerks, servants and slaves

-Wanted to claim north as well
-Look for more gold
-Southeastern and southwestern United States
-reached Florida and California

FLORIDA
Settling the Southwest
1540- Francisoco Vasquez de Coronado-
expedition (Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas)
Two years-NO gold

Purpose: search for silver ore or spread Roman Catholicism
Population dwindled from disease
congregraciones
-Spanish priests gathered natives into large communities:

New Mexico-led missionaries/ priests and settlers to Rio Grande
Sante Fe-“Holy Faith"
Christian missions among the Pueblos
1,500 mile trail
el camino Real
“royal Road”
carried goods between Santa Fe and Mexico City

RESISTANCE TO SPANISH
Catholic missionaries settled north of Mexico-
Christianize and impose Spanish culture

Conflict/Rebellion
Spanish converted many Native Americans
Tension in relationship between priests and converts
Tried to transform Native American culture-
priests and soldiers smashed and burned sacred objects, suppressed ceremonies and dance rituals

1670’s- Sante Fe forced Native Americans to pay tributes to missions (goods, services, maize, deerhide, or labour)
Native Americans who practiced their native religion or refused to pay tribute were beaten

Spain never had complete control of the Americas
England defeated the Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada-King Philip II set up fleet of 130 ships (19,000 soldiers)- stop English raids but lost
English cannons and powerful storms destroyed the ships
England began forging colonies along the eastern shore of North America-extending its own empire in the New World

Pope-Pueblo religious leader
punished for worship practices
Scarred him with hatred

1680-Uprising of 17,000 people
Destroyed Spanish churches, executed priests, and drove Spaniards back to New Spain
14 years-controlled by Native Americans

kachina dolls
SPANISH
200 Mile March to Tenochtitlan
Glittering Gold-hypnotizing
CUAHETEMUC
the Moors
“they picked up the gold and fingered it like monkeys”
“they hungered like pigs for that gold”
“disease of the heart that only gold can cure”-Cortes
decides to share with Cortes
Cuahetemuc-leads final assault against Spaniards
-hero to Modern Mexicans
Cortes establishes New Spain-capital Mexico City
Spanish churches/homes on foundations of native temples and palaces
Antonio de Montesinos
1542- abolished
encomienda
system
what about labour needs?
Pope's Rebellion
Full transcript