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Social Interaction and Social Process

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Maria Tanya Daplas

on 13 March 2015

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Transcript of Social Interaction and Social Process

Overview of Contents
SOCIAL INTERACTION
Nature of Social Interaction
A sociological perspective that views the meaning people attribute to a social setting

Assigning meaning to a situation in which the definition serves to determine not only our behavior but also some of the consequences of the behavior
Definition of the Situation
It refers to the process by which people mutually or reciprocally influence one another's attitudes, feelings and actions.

This is the tie between the individual and society.

It refers to the mutual intersimulation and response between two or more persons and groups through symbols, language, gestures and expression of ideas (Panopio, 1997)

Social Interaction
Social Interaction & Social Process
Ma. Tanya O. Daplas
Person-to-person
Social Interaction
Symbolic Interaction
It refers to the communication of thoughts and feelings between individuals that occurs by means of symbols - such as words, gestures, facial expressions and sounds.

It involves the use of language, both verbal, written and non-verbal through signs and gestures.

A sociological perspective that views social interaction as resembling a theatrical performance in which people "stage" their behavior in such a way that elicit the responses they desire from other people
Dramaturgy
It is a social perspective that studies the procedures people use to make sense of their everyday lives and experiences.

Ethno methodologists study the unspoken agreements that people use to produce and sustain for one another a sense of social order
Ethno methodology
Erving Goffman
Life is a stage where every person is an actor and an audience at the same time in the daily interaction.

Each person plays different roles in different social institutions where he is in and "stage" his or her behavior which he hopes will elicit the desired responses from others.
Dramaturgy
Nature of Social Interaction
Approaches to Social Interaction
Nature of Social Process
Classification of Social Process
Person-to-group
Group-to-group
Impression Management
- the manipulation of social impressions

It is a social perspective that studies the procedures people use to make sense of their everyday lives and experiences.

Ethno methodologists study the unspoken agreements that people use to produce and sustain for one another a sense of social order
Ethno methodology
It is a social perspective that portrays interaction as a more or less straightforward and rationally calculated series of mutually beneficial transactions
Social Exchange
(Homans and Blau)
Everyday, social life becomes a "marketplace" where people exchange values and rewards and avoid what they perceive as costs and burdens
Social Exchange
"Norm of Reciprocity"
the expectation that we should give and return equivalently in our relations with one another.

"give and take"
"one good turn deserves another"
"you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours"
"like attracts like"

"utang-na-loob"
"damayan"
"bigayan"
"bayanihan spirit"

Social Exchange
Human interaction involves little more than people acting out roles based on social script
Functionalist View
It refers to the recurrent and patterned interactions or responses of individuals to one another which have attained stability.

It is a repetitive form of social behavior that is commonly found in social life
Social Process
Based on Formation
1. Universal or basic processes
2. Derived social processes

Based on Unity or Opposition
1. Conjunctive social processes
2. Disjunctive social processes

Classification of Social Process
These refer to patterned and recurrent responses observable in all human societies

Cooperation
Competition
Conflict
Basic or Universal Social Processes
COOPERATION
It involves two or more persons joining their intelligence, efforts, talents and resources together to attain a goal which can be shared.

It is a kind of conjoint action or an alliance of persons or groups seeking some common goal or reward.
Basic or Universal Social Processes
Types of Cooperation
Informal Cooperation
- It is characterized as spontaneous and involves mutual
give and take

Formal Cooperation
- It is characterized as a deliberate contractual nature
and prescribes the reciprocal rights and obligations of
members

Symbolic Cooperation
- It is a situation where two or more persons live together
harmoniously and are supportive and interdependent
Basic or Universal Social Processes
Functions of Cooperation

It makes for social cohesion and integration among the members of a group.

It contributes to social stability and order.

It fosters consensus and compromise in various social issues
Basic or Universal Social Processes
COMPETITION

It is a form of impersonalized struggle or opposition to secure a reward or goal which cannot be shared.

It is a form of disjoint action between opposing individuals or groups
Basic or Universal Social Processes
Types of Competition

Personal Competition
- It involves direct, face-to-face contact between
opposing parties

Impersonal Competition
- It involves a struggle between persons or groups
not directly aware of each other
Basic or Universal Social Processes
Functions of Competition

Competing individuals or groups try to outdo each other and thereby innovate ways to do so.

Competition can be a driving force to persons to develop their potentials to the fullest and attain maximum efficiency and effectiveness.

Competition can develop productivity, creativity and ingenuity.

Competition of members of a society for certain goals and the competition for scarce resources lead to variation or differentiation
Basic or Universal Social Processes
CONFLICT

It is a form of highly personalized and emotionalized struggle or opposition between individuals or groups to attain a scarce goals or values.

Efforts are directed to neutralize, injure or eliminate rivals
Basic or Universal Social Processes
Functions of Conflict

It may help establish unity and cohesion within a group.

Internal conflict becomes a stabilizing and integrating mechanism in certain instances.

It provides an outlet for the expression of suppressed emotions and frustrations

Competition and conflict promote social change
Basic or Universal Social Processes
These refer to secondary social processes that arise out of the basic social processes
Derived Social Processes
ACCULTURATION

(cultural borrowing/cultural imitation)
a social process where a group blends in and takes on some characteristics of another culture

ASSIMILATION
involves some kind of interpenetration or fusion of cultural elements whereby persons or groups accept the cultural traits, attitudes, beliefs and sentiments of another through direct, friendly and continuous contacts

AMALGAMATION
refers to some kind of biological fusion through intermarriage of persons coming from different ethnic groups
Derived Social Processes
DIFFERENTIATION
refers to the creation of interests resulting in individuals or groups needing or wanting different things or services rather than the same thing

ACCOMMODATION
refers to the social process whereby competing or conflicting individuals or groups thresh out difficulties in order to minimize, if not stop the conflict
Derived Social Processes
KINDS OF ACCOMMODATION

Domination
involves dominant-subordinate relationship

Truce or Pact
an agreement to to cease hostilities or fighting for a certain period of time

Compromise
a process of settling differences where opposing parties withdraw or give up their demands to adjust their relationship

Derived Social Processes
KINDS OF ACCOMMODATION

Mediation
a neutral third party intervenes and gives suggestions or recommendations

Conciliation
the third or neutral party can be anybody to settle disputes and who may or may not give recommendations to settle the conflict

Arbitration
the third or neutral party has legal authority to decide on the conflict
his/her decision is followed by the opposing parties

Toleration
a form of accommodation without formal agreement
a result of the "live and let live" policy where conflicting individuals or groups put up with others without trying to modify the behavior of the others

Derived Social Processes

Conjunctive Social Processes
-
patterned forms of social interactions which lead to
unity, organization, cooperation and harmony


Disconjunctive Social Processes
-
patterned forms of social interactions which lead to disunity,
disorganization, division and disharmony.

Based on Unity or Opposition
Full transcript