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Worker's Rights During the Progressive Era
Transcript of Worker's Rights During the Progressive Era
working conditions 1883- Pendleton Service Act-system that awarded jobs based on merit
1898-The Supreme Court upheld laws limiting the number of hours that laborers could work in dangerous jobs such as mining
1904- Wisconsin Idea- supported direct primaries and the hiring of professionals to manage social problems; model for other state governments.
1908- Muller v. Oregon- Supreme Court upheld laws limiting women’s work hours
1911- Department of Labor is created Progressive Era
Solutions and Reforms Progressive Era Problems not entitled to vacation, sick leave,
or reimbursement for injuries working hours: dawn to dusk for 6 days a week spoils system 1914- Clayton Act -made clear the legal concept that "the labor of a human being is not a commodity or article of commerce"
1916- Keating-Owens Act- makes it illegal for companies to ship goods produced by children
Between 1900-1915, the average weekly wages in unionized industries rose from $17.50 to $24 and the average workweek fell from 54.5 hours to under 49 hours
American Federation of Labor Union, International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, the Industrial Workers of the World, and other unions worked for higher wages, fewer hours, and safer working conditions
Collective bargaining Samuel Gompers
was the president of the AFL in 1886 and changed the economic, social, and political status of American workers. John L. Lewis
was an American leader who arranged the United Mine Workers of America and helped create a national wave of industrial unionism. Eugene V. Debs formed the American Railway Union for unskilled and semiskilled laborers as well as skilled engineers and firemen. Frances Perkins was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945 and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet. Important People William “Big Bill” Haywood was the leader of the Industrial Workers of the World and provided a union for workers regardless of their specific trade or skill level. Modern Day Problems discrimination between gender, origin, religious and sexual orientation groups hours and overtime workplace conditions wages child labor In 2011, 73.9 million American workers age 16 and over were paid at hourly rates, representing 59.1 percent of all wage and salary workers. Among those paid by the hour, 1.7 million earned exactly the prevailing Federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. About 2.2 million had wages below the minimum. Together, these 3.8 million workers with wages at or below the Federal minimum made up 5.2 percent of all hourly-paid workers Percent of hourly-paid workers that earned the Federal minimum wage or less:
5% of Whites
6% of Blacks
3% of Asians
5% of Hispanic ethnicity
About 6% of women paid hourly rates had wages at or below the prevailing Federal minimum, compared with about 4% of men. In the USA close to 300,000 children were working illegally in 1996. Nearly 3.0 million nonfatal workplace injuries and illnesses were reported by private industry employers in 2011, resulting in an incidence rate of 3.5 cases per 100 equivalent full-time workers Part-time workers (persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week) were more likely than full-time workers to be paid the Federal minimum wage or less (about 13% versus about 2%). Modern Day Soultions and Reforms 1963- Equal Pay Act was meant to abolish wage gap based on gender
1975 - the U.S. Supreme Court, ruled upheld a National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) decision that employees have a right to union representation at investigatory interviews. These rights have become known as the Weingarten Rights.
1978- Humans Rights Watch organization was formed
2000-In July, the NLRB under the Clinton administration extended the Weingarten Rights to employees at nonunionized workplaces.
2009 - The Paycheck Fairness Act - was twice introduced and twice rejected by the United States Congress. This act allows women to receive the same amount of pay as their male counterparts. Today in 2012, the act has still not been approved but many are still trying to get it approved.
March 23, 2010 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/ Obama care was signed into law. It decreased the number of uninsured Americans and it reduced the overall cost of healthcare. On June 29, 1934 , the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) was established to perform elections for labor union representation and look into and cure unjust labor practices.
1936- Public Contracts Act - required contractors on government jobs to observe the 8-hour day
1938- Fair Labor Standards Act -provided a maximum work week for employers in interstate commerce(44 hours), set a minimum wage and forced employers to pay overtime for any work over 44 hours.
1938- Fair Labor Standards Act - for non-agricultural jobs, children:
under 12 can't be employed
12- 16 can be employed during limited hours,
children under 16may not be involved in hazardous tasks
16 - 18 may be employed for unlimited hours in non-hazardous occupations.
Exceptions: employment by parents, newspaper delivery, and child actors. Important People Walter Reuther was an American labor union leader who created the United Automobile Workers, a main in the auto industry and in the Democratic Party. Philip Randolph was a leader in the American Labor Movement and organized the first predominately black labor union. César Chávez was an American farm worker and a labor leader who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association which later became the United Farm Workers. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the president who passed the New Deal, a plan to help the nation get out of the Great Depression. Our Plan of Action To keep child labor statistics low, the Department of Labor should hire more inspectors. (The average U.S. state has 8.5 inspectors for the entire state.) They can also make sure that the inspectors who do exist make an effort to catch violators. If violation fines/penalties are increased, employers will be less likely to violate laws such as discrimination, child labor, and not paying fair wages or overtime. Raise awareness about dangerous working conditions by pubishing stories in the news. Maybe people can even sign a petition to pass or amend a law. Citizens can also write letters to their senators, governer, and representatives asking them to pass laws they are in favor of. The 2 major labor unions in the U.S.A. (the American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) and the Change to Win Federation) advocate support policies and legislation favorable to workers in the United States and Canada. With their help it will be easier to spread the word and join with other labor unions to help workers win lawsuits and more rights. References
•"A Third of a Century of La Folletteism." Milwaukee Journal, Oct. 21, 1930.
•Brief History of American Labor -- Mirror Site of UnionWeb History -- Originally from the American Federationist. (n.d.). University at Albany - SUNY - Home Page. Retrieved October 24, 2012
•Drieier, P. (2010, September 15). The Fifty Most Influential Progressives of the Twentieth Century | The Nation. The Nation. Retrieved October 24, 2012
•Shmoop Editorial Team. (November 11, 2008).Progressive Era Politics Timeline of Important Dates. Retrieved October 24, 2012
•Worecester, M. (n.d.). 1900s Poor Working Conditions | eHow.com. eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you. | eHow.com. Retrieved October 24, 2012 By: Victoria, Tanya, Paulo, Noni, Pavel •President Barack Obama is the president who passed Obamacare, which decreased the number of uninsured Americans and reduced the overall cost of healthcare.
•President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the president who passed the New Deal, a plan to help the nation get out of the Great Depression.
•Walter Reuther was an American labor union leader who created the United Automobile Workers, a main in the auto industry and in the Democratic Party.
•Philip Randolph was a leader in the American Labor Movement. He organized the first predominately black labor union.
•César Chávez was an American farm worker and a labor leader who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association which later became the United Farm Workers.