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Lifespan Development FOR

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on 7 November 2016

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Transcript of Lifespan Development FOR

Lifespan development refers to age-related changes from birth to older adulthood.
Thank you!
Lela Llorens
Psychosocial Development
Lifespan Development F.O.R
Cherie Tang, OTS - Eunice Oh, OTS - Demi Encina, OTS
What is lifespan Development
Cognitive development
Hierarchical Development of cognition
Cognitive Milestones
8 Psychosocial
Hierarchy of Basic
Human Needs
Sensory Development
Motor Development
Psychosocial Development
Cognitive Development
Self Care
Erikson believed that our personality is built based on our social experience within our life span.

He created the
8 psychosocial stages
that combined the
social factors
which created the “
sensitive period

In each stage, it has a set of crises which must resolved.

8 Stages of Development
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Erikson's childhood stages remain in the forefront of the pediatric OT.
Trust vs. Mistrust →
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt →
Initiative vs. Guilt →
Sense of Purpose
Industry vs. inferiority →
Sense of Competence
Self Identity vs. Role Diffusion →
Clarification Role, Sense of Self, & Sense of Loyalty
Why is it Important to OT?
OTs believed that Erikson's theories are "applicable across cultures" which is useful in Occupational Therapy.
Why is it important to OT?
OTs need to see if the client has any disturbances in the lower levels that may prevent them from reaching their full potential.
Maslow's theory consist of a motivational system that was not related to rewards or unconscious desires.
He stated that people are motivated to achieve a certain need and when they have achieved that need, the person seeks for the next need.
5 stage model
are divided into
basic needs
growth needs

If the basic needs are unmet, the need to fulfill their need becomes stronger the longer the need is denied.
feeding the homeless
giving people the utmost
respect & dignity
Fans in the stands!
To belong to the community
& build one's self esteem
Lloren's theory was based on
facilitating growth

She believed that the OT's role was to facilitate process which assists the individual in achieving
Mastery of life tasks
Ability to cope as efficiently as possible with selected stimuli and suitable environment.
Llorens also viewed developmental as horizontal & longitudinal process

Jean Piaget - cognitive development from birth to adolescence
7 Main Constructs
Mental Schemes
Experiences → Concepts/Organizational Patterns
Structure these schemes
to direct actions
Adapted Intelligence
Learning new things by adapting
Balance between what you know and can act on based on your environment
Ability to take situation and change it, to match an existing scheme
Response to environment
A way to
Develop new schemes in response to reality
According to Piaget...
all are ways in how we learn new things!
Four Stages
exploring the world through senses
11 - 19 years old
As we get older, our cognitive abilities go up!
Early object use
Sensorimotor development
Schemes grow in complexity
Cause/effect →complex actions
symbolic play
imaginative play → more non-realistic
Problem-Solving Skills
Object Permanence → Anticipatory Actions

adaptability to environment or environmental challenge
sensory development
logical thought
for solving

symbolic & verbal play
enjoying games w/ rules→
adjust to social demands
logic used to think of possible consequences to actions
motor development
Arnold Gesell, a pediatrician and psychologist, was one of the first to systematically describe motor development
Why is it important to OT?
to learn
to understand our environment
build adaptive skills
become more creative
0-3 months:
raise head while lying prone; primitive reflexes
3-6 months:
roll over, sit up with hand control, reach and grasp
6-9 months:
sit independently, crawling begins
9-12 months:
pull up to stand, walk along furniture
by 12 months: stand independently, can take a few steps
Crossing midline
Bilateral integration
12-18 months:
walk independently, jump in place
18 months - 2 years:
begin to run, kick a ball, climb onto or off of furniture
self-care development
Motor Development in Infancy
2.5 to 3 years of age

oral motor control
cognitive abilities
Dressing Skills
4 - 5 years of age

gross motor to fine motor
sensory skills
whole body coordination
Motor Development Continued...
Toileting Skills
4 - 5 years of age

managing bowel & bladder control
fine motor control
Home Management Skills
various ages
developing motor skills
cognitive abilities
ex. putting away toys, cooking, laundry
why is sensorimotor development important to ot?
Foundational base for all other areas of development
why is it important to OT?
self care/ADL skills develop over time so that they can be functionally independent
Knowing the typical stages of development can guide questions we ask, goals we consider, and the meaning of occupation as intervention.
Lifespan development was initially used in the medical model
ages & stages concept
linear & hierarchical

The paradigm shift in OT from medical model to client-centered model.
Touch, taste, and smell are developed by birth
20/240 vision at birth
20/40 vision by 6 months
Full acuity by 3 years
More sensitive to loud, high-pitched tone
Fully develop by 4-8 months
Middle Adulthood
Vision and sound begin to decline at age 40
Decreased sensitivity to high-pitched tone
Late Adulthood
Vision and hearing continue to decline
Decrease in taste, smell, and touch
Decline in balance, movement, and
body awareness
Cole, M.B. & Tufano, R. (2008). Applied theories in occupational
therapy: A practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
Santrock, J. (2011). Life-span development (13th ed.). New York,
NY: McGraw-Hill.
2-3 years: throw an object
3-5 years: visual motor integration (hand-eye coordination)
Gross and fine motor skills continue to develop

Gross and fine motor skills are well developed

Peak motor performance at age 30
Motor performance declines significantly in older adulthood
Sensory + Motor
= Sensorimotor!
Coupling relationship
Body awareness
Our senses give us an idea of what is happening around us.
8 Senses!
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