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Lifespan Development FOR
Transcript of Lifespan Development FOR
Lifespan Development F.O.R
Cherie Tang, OTS - Eunice Oh, OTS - Demi Encina, OTS
What is lifespan Development
Hierarchical Development of cognition
Hierarchy of Basic
Erikson believed that our personality is built based on our social experience within our life span.
He created the
8 psychosocial stages
that combined the
which created the “
In each stage, it has a set of crises which must resolved.
8 Stages of Development
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Erikson's childhood stages remain in the forefront of the pediatric OT.
Trust vs. Mistrust →
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt →
Initiative vs. Guilt →
Sense of Purpose
Industry vs. inferiority →
Sense of Competence
Self Identity vs. Role Diffusion →
Clarification Role, Sense of Self, & Sense of Loyalty
Why is it Important to OT?
OTs believed that Erikson's theories are "applicable across cultures" which is useful in Occupational Therapy.
Why is it important to OT?
OTs need to see if the client has any disturbances in the lower levels that may prevent them from reaching their full potential.
Maslow's theory consist of a motivational system that was not related to rewards or unconscious desires.
He stated that people are motivated to achieve a certain need and when they have achieved that need, the person seeks for the next need.
5 stage model
are divided into
If the basic needs are unmet, the need to fulfill their need becomes stronger the longer the need is denied.
feeding the homeless
giving people the utmost
respect & dignity
Fans in the stands!
To belong to the community
& build one's self esteem
Lloren's theory was based on
She believed that the OT's role was to facilitate process which assists the individual in achieving
Mastery of life tasks
Ability to cope as efficiently as possible with selected stimuli and suitable environment.
Llorens also viewed developmental as horizontal & longitudinal process
Jean Piaget - cognitive development from birth to adolescence
7 Main Constructs
Experiences → Concepts/Organizational Patterns
Structure these schemes
to direct actions
Learning new things by adapting
Balance between what you know and can act on based on your environment
Ability to take situation and change it, to match an existing scheme
Response to environment
A way to
Develop new schemes in response to reality
According to Piaget...
all are ways in how we learn new things!
exploring the world through senses
11 - 19 years old
As we get older, our cognitive abilities go up!
Early object use
Schemes grow in complexity
Cause/effect →complex actions
imaginative play → more non-realistic
Object Permanence → Anticipatory Actions
adaptability to environment or environmental challenge
symbolic & verbal play
enjoying games w/ rules→
adjust to social demands
logic used to think of possible consequences to actions
Arnold Gesell, a pediatrician and psychologist, was one of the first to systematically describe motor development
Why is it important to OT?
to understand our environment
build adaptive skills
become more creative
raise head while lying prone; primitive reflexes
roll over, sit up with hand control, reach and grasp
sit independently, crawling begins
pull up to stand, walk along furniture
by 12 months: stand independently, can take a few steps
walk independently, jump in place
18 months - 2 years:
begin to run, kick a ball, climb onto or off of furniture
Motor Development in Infancy
2.5 to 3 years of age
oral motor control
4 - 5 years of age
gross motor to fine motor
whole body coordination
Motor Development Continued...
4 - 5 years of age
managing bowel & bladder control
fine motor control
Home Management Skills
developing motor skills
ex. putting away toys, cooking, laundry
why is sensorimotor development important to ot?
Foundational base for all other areas of development
why is it important to OT?
self care/ADL skills develop over time so that they can be functionally independent
Knowing the typical stages of development can guide questions we ask, goals we consider, and the meaning of occupation as intervention.
Lifespan development was initially used in the medical model
ages & stages concept
linear & hierarchical
The paradigm shift in OT from medical model to client-centered model.
Touch, taste, and smell are developed by birth
20/240 vision at birth
20/40 vision by 6 months
Full acuity by 3 years
More sensitive to loud, high-pitched tone
Fully develop by 4-8 months
Vision and sound begin to decline at age 40
Decreased sensitivity to high-pitched tone
Vision and hearing continue to decline
Decrease in taste, smell, and touch
Decline in balance, movement, and
Cole, M.B. & Tufano, R. (2008). Applied theories in occupational
therapy: A practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
Santrock, J. (2011). Life-span development (13th ed.). New York,
2-3 years: throw an object
3-5 years: visual motor integration (hand-eye coordination)
Gross and fine motor skills continue to develop
Gross and fine motor skills are well developed
Peak motor performance at age 30
Motor performance declines significantly in older adulthood
Sensory + Motor
Our senses give us an idea of what is happening around us.