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PAST PERFECT SIMPLE AND PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

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Valentina Bobadilla

on 7 May 2015

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Transcript of PAST PERFECT SIMPLE AND PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE AND PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
The time expressions
already, for, since, and yet
may be used in the past perfect simple, as they are in the present perfect simple. Remember the following rules for using other time expressions:
We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous.
Past perfect continuous

Use before, when, by the time before the past simple:
Ex: Before I knew it, she had run out the door. / By the time he phoned her, she had found someone new.
Use after, as soon as, the moment that, until before using the past perfect simple.
Ex: After she had moved out, I found her notes./ I didn’t say anything until she had finished talking.
The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something
occurred before another action in the past
. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
Structure
Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.
(+)
Subject
I / You / We / They

He / She / It
had ('d) + verb (past participle)
+ Rest of sentence
Examples
(-)
Subject
I / You / We / They

He / She / It
Auxiliary Verb
hadn't or had not
Verb ( past participle
Rest of sentence
1.I
had not eaten
at that restaurant before today.

2.Samantha
hadn’t had
time to explain her side of the story.

3.My friends
hadn’t ever gone
to France.

4.My friends
had never gone
to the USA either.

5. He
had not taken
the exam last year
(?)Wh- Yes/No questions
Had
Subject
verb in past participle
+
+
+
Rest of sentence
+
?
Wh-word
/
had
/
subject
/
verb in past participle
/
Rest of sentence
/
?
1.What had they said that made him so angry?



2.Why had he agreed to work for that salary?





3.How much had he drunk before you got to him?


1.Had you cleaned up the mess by the time they came home?




2.Had Adam ever spoken to the CEO before he was fired?


Structure
(+)
Subject
I / You / We / They
He / She / It
had been + Verb (ing)
Rest of sentence

1.John was very tired. He
had been running
(= the cause because John is tired is because he run).

2.Ram was angry because, he
had been waiting
for three hours.(= the cause because Ray is angry is because he waited for three hours)


3.My mom
had been kissing
the dog since we arrived from the mall. (= the cause because my mom kisses the dog is because she has just arrived from the mall.)


4.By the time Sam found his umbrella, it
had been raining
for ten minutes. (= the cause because Sam found his umbrella is because it has been raining)



5.By the time Catherine got to the office, the client
had been waiting
for an hour.(= the cause because Catherine got to the office is because the client has been waiting for)



Examples
(-)
Subject
I/ You/ We / They
He / She / It
hadn't or had not
Been + verb (ing)
Rest of sentence
1.I
hadn’t been feeling
well, so I sent him away.


2.Simon
had not been expecting
a positive answer when he got a job.


3.The hikers
hadn’t been walking
long before they got lost.


4. I
had not been
waiting for him for one hour.



5. She
had not been playing
chess since 7 O’clock.
(?)Wh-Yes/No questions
Had
/
Subjet
/
Been + verb (ing)
/
Rest of sentences
/
?
Wh-word
/
had
/
subject
/
Been + verb (ing)
/
Rest of sentences
/
?

1.
What had you been doing
when you cut your finger?


2.
Which
fax message
had you been trying
to send when the power went off?


3.
How
long
had he been
waiting?


4.
Had I been living
in America since 2003?


5.
Had he been playing
cricket for two hours?


6.
Had they been watching
television since 6 O’clock?


7.
Had she been working
in this office since 2007?


8.
Had it been raining
for three days?
Past perfect simple
1.After
Sofia had finished
her work, she took lunch. (= first Sofia finished her work, then she took lunch)

2.I washed the floor when the painter
had gone
.(=first the painter left the house then I washed the floor)

3.When he arrived, the film
had started
(= first the movie started then he arrived)

4.I didn’t say anything until
she had finished
talking.(= first she finished talking, then I said something.

5.After
she had moved

out
, I found her notes.(=first she moved out ,then i found her notes)
+
+
+
Other time expressions
Never and ever : we can use it between had and the verb in past participle
Kristine had never been to opera until last night.
Contraction of HAD
The contraction of had is 'd but we have to careful because would uses the same contraction so we must be aware of the situation and the tense of the sentence
It is in the first action in the past when we use the Past Perfect Simple. In the subsequent action (2nd from the past), it is used past simple.
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