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Inquiry-Based Science Instruction - What is it and does it m

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hilal kck

on 6 November 2013

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Transcript of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction - What is it and does it m

Why to need a meta-analysis in inquiry based instruction?
One of political demands of countries is having students who are successful in high difficulty tests prepared in accordance to national science standards. Therefore the funding provided for education is increased sometimes.

Three institution providing funding for education in America for the late 20 years are National Science Foundation (NSF), National Research Council (NRC) and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Web sites:
http://www.nsf.gov/
http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/

Details continued - the complexity of the study
The analysis was complex due to several factors. These factors can be arranged as following:

1) Studies were included with a range of research methods and designs, and beside these there are some methodological rigors to be extracted.
2) The field has yet to develop a specific and well-accepted definition of what is meant by that term.
3) The synthesis included across a range of science disciplines and grades, in different instructional context and employed different instructional materials and curricula.

Note: To solve all these challenges above, the researchers prepared particular frameworks.
Details on article - First analyses on inquiry based instruction
The research realized on this issue were intended to be surveyed and examined along with the political and scientific intention on inquiry. The very first analyses to realize this examination were carried out in 1983 by Shymansky and Bredderman.

This 4 year project is also a configuration on these first analyses. Nevertheless the analyses handled by Shymansky (1983) and Bredderman (1983) were focalized in a specific curriculum, whereas this study aimed to focus on inquiry based instruction.
Inquiry-Based Science Instruction - What is it and does it matter? Results from a research synthesis years 1984 to 2002

"Daphne D. Miner, Abigail J. Levy and Jeanne Century"
September, 2009
in JRST

What is the article concerned?
The article is about a research project which was realized between 2001 and 2006 to determine the impact of inquiry based instruction on K12 students' conceptual learning. Hence 138 research study were examined by using a mixed-methodology approach for both numerical and text data.

The main conclusion drawn from the research was teaching strategies that actively engage students in the learning process through scientific investigations are more likely to increase conceptual understanding than are strategies that rely on more passive techniques.

Concerning the complexities mentioned, the inclusion of the studies realized between 1984 and 2002 followed the undermentioned way:

1) described the nature of the variability in research on the impact of inquiry science instruction on student understanding of science concepts, conducted between 1984 and 2002.

2) presented effectiveness of the findings related to the whole data set of 138 articles.

3) determined the relationship between instruction and outcomes.
How to define inquiry based instruction?
The kind of constructivist-based materials are commonly classified under the moniker of inquiry-based and includes hands-on activities as a way to motivate and engage students while concretizing science concepts.
Let's go deep in "Inquiry"
The term inquiry is an umbrella term embracing three different aspects.

1) What scientists do (conducting investigations using scientific methods)

2) How students learn (actively inquiring through thinking and doing into a phenomenon)

3) Pedagogical approach (designing or using a curricula)
Inclusion criteria:
1) realized between 1984-2002
2) the k12 students
3) at least one instructional intervention included
4) measured outcomes statistically
5) printed articles
6) have explicit and clear information
7) "understanding" as dependent variable; "earth science", "life science" and "physical science" as disciplines.
123 different term used in place of inquiry based instruction were determined by the researchers to carry out the article scanning.

The researchers come to 1027 documents as the result of this scanning.

Following the determination, the reference lists of 443 articles were also checked.

Consequently, the 138 article remained as for the inclusion in analysis.


However, whether it is the scientist, the student or the teacher who is doing inquiry, the core components are as following:
1) Learners are engaged by scientifically oriented questions.
2) Learners give priority to evidence.
3) Learners formulate explanations from this evidence to address scientifically oriented questions.
4) Learners evaluate their explanations.
5) Learners communicate and justify their proposed explanations.
Coding for analysis
Coding comprised three stages.

. Stage 1: Each document was controlled if the inclusion criteria were met. At least, article should have one research question about inquiry-based instruction.

. Stage 2: the type of inquiry was determined and coded.

. Stage 3: All other relevant information were coded such as methodological integrity, the context of the study, covariants, study findings etc.

Mutual code books were prepared for the researchers in coding process as examining the documents.

Each study was independently coded by both members of coding team, resulted in %100 interrater aggreement.

CODE BOOKS
Inquiry-based instruction:

1) The context:
a) Physical science
b) Life sciences
c) Earth sciences

2) Interaction with the context:
a) Students manipulate materials.
b) Students watch scientific phenomena.
c) Students watch a demonstration of scientific phenomena.
d) Students watch a demonstration that is not scientific phenomena.
e) Students use secondary sources (e.g. reading material, internet, discussion etc.)

3) The field of inquiry
a) Learning responsibility
b) Active thinking process
c) Motivation



Student outcomes:
Understanding
Retention

Reseach design:
1) Experimental research
a) Control group design with pre and post tests
b) Control group design with post test
c) Crosswise research

2) Quasi-experimental reseach:
a) Control group design with pre and post tests
b) Control group design with post test
c) Qualitative time-series design

3) Non-experimental research:
a) pre-post test
b) pre-test
c) multi-measures
d) a measure during intervention


Methodological rigors:
1) Descriptive clarity
2) Data quality
3) Analytic integrity
Results
%51 0f studies showed positive impacts on some level of inquiry science instruction on student content learning and retention.

There were no statistically relation between inquiry saturation and conceptual understanding. but the amount of active thinking, and emphasis on drawing conclusions from data were significant predictors of outcomes (with regard to logical regression data)

Having students actively think about and participate in the investigation process increases their conceptual learning. Additionally hands-on experiences with scientific or natural phenomena also found to be associated with increased conceptual understanding.




Teaching strategies that actively engage students in the learning process through scientific investigations are more likely to increase conceptual understanding than are strategies that rely on more passive techniques.

Overall high levels of inquiry saturation in instruction were associated with more positive learning outcomes for students.

Suggestions for the future studies
The term "inquiry based instruction" has come to mean different things, and future research is needed in order to further operationalize this prevalent construct. One way in which this term should be further clarified is by distinguishing it from constructivist teaching practices, which can be applied across disciplinary boundaries, such as questioning strategies that encourage active student thinking and knowledge construction.
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