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Intro to SI

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Rejina Yniesta

on 25 July 2013

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Transcript of Intro to SI

Introduction to Sensory Integration
Tactile System
• arise from firing tiny receptors located in muscles, tendons, and ligaments surrounding the joints
• necessary for psychological basis for self-awareness and it emphasizes the shoulder, hips, jaw and spine

1. tells the brain where body parts are in space and in relation to each other without having to look
2. serves as basis for body image when coupled with tactile
3. work with vision and vestibular input to influence balance

• it is one aspect of sensory processing
• neurobiological process
• a form of OT
• a theory by Jean Ayres
• sensory systems involved

Neurologically based concepts
Sensory support for development & brain function
-Sensory input is necessary for optimal brain function.
-The brain is designed to constantly take in sensory information
- sensory nourishment for the brain
Vestibular System
• Mediates adaptive responses to gravity and movement
• most powerful, influences every other system
• Results from the firing of the vestibular apparatus located in the inner ear
• Important for balance

1. provide subjective awareness of body positions and movement in space
2. influences muscle tone to affect antigravity postural tone and equilibrium responses to stay in midline
3. coordinates movements of one's eye, head and body

Adaptive Response
organization of a successful,
goal-related action on the environment

Neural plasticity
- When organisms are permitted to explore interesting environments, significant increases in dendritic branching, synaptic connections, synaptic efficiency, and size of brain tissue result

CNS Organization
- Ayres developed hierarchical models of the CNS that dominated thinking in the neurosciences
- These models viewed the nervous system in terms of vertically arranged levels, with the spinal cord at the bottom, the cerebral hemispheres at the top, and the brainstem sandwiched in between
- brainstem and thalamus
- vestibular processing = Brainstem; somatosensory processing = Brainstem and Thalamus
• Activities:
-Swinging in suspended equipment
-Turning, rotating, spinning
-Scooter boards
-Wagon rides
-Dancing /marching

• Classic indicator of vestibular problem:
gravitational and postural insecurity
• Common manifestations: clumsy, disorganized, balance problems, poor spacing of letters and words on a line, difficulty in size constancy in letter, difficulty staying between two lines, reversals on orientation errors in numbers and letters, R/L discrimination, head shaking, flicking fingers at the side of the head (optokinetic reflex), eating with head on hand, catching ball without moving feet
• arises from receptors located in the skin that perceives sensory input when we touch something
• two separate and distinct touch systems differentiate light touch from pressure touch
1. alerts us to threat
2. gives us body boundaries
3. gives basis for body image when coupled with proprioception

Common manifestations
: may get hurt without realizing it, may realize he dropped an item he was carrying, mouthing, poor body awareness with vision occluded, biting over bony area, has difficulty standing in line between children, sucking thumb, purposely bumps or strikes out at children because he can't tolerate close proximity, dislikes messy activities, choosy about fabrics in clothing, dislikes certain foods because of the texture, fidgets with shirt
• Activities:
-Brush with firm pressure
-Brush in proximal to distal direction
-Brush slowly but steadily and firmly
-Brush in direction with rather than against
-Indian milking(lotioning)
-Pressure massage
-Rubbing forearms using deep pressure
-Wrap individual in warm or tightly wrapped blanket

Proprioceptive System

Common manifestations:
stiff and uncoordinated movements, clumsiness and falling frequently, not able to do things without looking, difficulty to dress and undress, difficulty seating oneself in a chair, difficulty ascending and descending chairs, chews and bites over fleshy area, slaps feet when walking, shakes head, hits head, hugs too tightly, grinding teeth, biting thumb, pulling hair, holds pencil so hard the point breaks, pulling or biting on shirt

-Heavy work patterns or task
-Recreative or playful activity
-Obstacle courses

other systems include:
visual system
• involves central rather than peripheral sensory functions
Sensory modulation

-"there is a continuum of sensory responsivity and hyporesponsivity at one end and hyperesponsivity at the other end" (Cermak & Royen)

discrimination &
- inefficient or inaccurate organization of sensory information
- modulation problems often coexist with perceptual problems
- best detected by standardized tests, except in the case of proprioception, which is difficult to measure in any standardized manner

Problems related to
proprioceptive functions
- clinical signs related to this type of problem involve the motor functions that are outcomes of vestibular processing, such as poor equilibium reactions and low muscle tone (particularly of the extensor tone)

Difficulties related to praxis

- Dyspraxia
- Developmental Dyspraxia
- Somatopraxis
- Somatodyspraxia

Optimal arousal
Failure to orient
Sensory registration problem
Sensory defensiveness
Continuum of sensory responsivity & orientation
Thank you
It's demo
• Classic indicator of vestibular problem:
gravitational and postural insecurity
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