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Copy of Sumerians, Babylonians, and Phoenicians

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Adam Kronenberg

on 16 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Sumerians, Babylonians, and Phoenicians

Sumerians Geography The Sumerian civilization was located in the Middle East in the Fertile Crescent, it surrounded the Tigris and Euphrates River and reached the Persian Gulf. Map of Sumerian Civilization Religion The Sumerians had a polytheistic religion. They worshiped a sun, moon, and star god. They also had a reed god and a beer god. One myth is that the Sumerians believed that their crops grew when the gods were mating with their goddesses. ENKI- the god of the earth and waters Accomplishments Some accomplishments of the Sumerians were their own form of cuneiform writing, their own ziggurat, improvement of social and economic organization, units of time, pottery, record keeping, advancement in the use of the wheel, the sail, the plow and advancements in math and science. Sumerian man building a wheel Political The Sumerian Civilization had a Dynasty of Monarchs that ruled Sumeria. The Sumerians believed that the monarch had the divine right to rule. The Sumerians also had a system bureaucracy, where a government of officials makes important decisions. 2300 bce - 1950 bce Gilgamesh- A Sumerian King Economic Sumerians made most of their money through trade, farming, fishing, and merchants. They had trade routes to the Mediterranean sea, the red sea and even India. The majority of the people living in Sumer were farmers (80-90 %). The Sumerians did not have a money system so they would weigh different metals to find out an items worth. Sumerian shells- cut and used as a form of money Social The Sumerians had a very common caste system. The king would be at the top. Next would come the nobles, priests, government officials, and warriors. After that came the merchants, traders, artisans, and freed slaves. The lowest level were the slaves. Sumerians working on their farm Decline The Sumerian civilization declined because the military leadership was beginning to fail. The infantry was unorganized and unprepared for war. There was also an extreme increase of salt in the water. This made it impossible for farms to grow so most of the farmers left their lands and Sumer. This meant an 80-90% decrease in population. Map of the city- states in Sumer before decline. Babylonians 1750 bce- 539 bce Facts The city- states of Sumer were created by Sargon of Akkad, the First king of Sumer. Sumer was the first civilization in Mesopotamia. Ur was the largest city- state. Geography Babylon was located in the Middle East in the Fertile Crescent. It lies just north of the Sumerian Civilization. Map of Babylon at the time of Hammurabli Religion Babylonians had a polytheistic religion. They believed in the prophecy that all humans will die. their main god was Shamash, the sun god. Shamash- the sun god Accomplishments Some accomplishments of the Babylonians were astronomy, astrology, the idea of laws and concepts, and the Hanging Gardens (612 bce). Hanging gardens of Babylon Political The Babylonians were ruled by a king. 2 famous kings were king Hammurabi (hanging gardens and code) and king Nebuchadnezzar. The code of Hammurabi was a list of about 300 laws that were carved onto a stone pillar for everyone to see. His code addressed civil law and criminal law. Civil law dealt with private matters and rights such as business, taxes, marriage and divorce, and property. Criminal law dealt with offenses such as robbery, murder, and assault. The punishment of breaking one of theses laws were cruel and unfair. The punishments had followed the principle of "an eye for an eye and a life for a life". This meant that if you caused something bad to happen to someone, that same thing you happen to you. For example, if a man dies because of a sickness he got from an infected product that a farmer grew, that farmer could be put to death. Code of Hammurabi Economic The Babylonians made most of their money through trade and farming. Their system of trade and money was based on the wealth of agriculture. The money system of Babylon were gold coins called Lydians. Gold Lydian of Babylon Social The social class of Babylon was based on a Caste system similar to the Sumerian civilization. The king was on top. Next came the Nobles. After that came the Free- citizens and military service. Next came the Merchants. The lowest class was the slaves. Babylon slaves Decline The Babylon civilization fell because they were attacked by the Persian empire in 539 bce. The Babylonians were already weak from drought and lack of food. Persians attack Babylon in 539 bce. Facts The Babylonian civilization was grouped into 3 different time periods. They were Old Babylon, Mid Babylon, and New Babylon. Babylon means "Gate of God". The Hanging gardens of Babylon are one of the 7 wonders of the world. A palace or temple in Babylon Phoenicians 1200 bce - 330 bce Geography The Phoenician civilization was located east of the Mediterranean sea and north of ancient Caanon. This area is present day Lebanon. Map showing the Phoenicia territory Religion The Phoenicians had a polytheistic religion. The believed in the power of nature and many gods and goddesses. One famous goddess was Anath- the goddess of love and war. Anath (Anat)- the goddess of love and war Accomplishments Some accomplishments of the Phoenicians were the development of the alphabet, purple dye called "Tyrian Purple", the first see through glass. They were able to navigate through the north star. Man holding Tyrian purple cloth. Political The political of the Phoenician civilization was a monarchy. A king ruled over the people and was responsible for making the laws for people to follow. The political structure was very basic in Phoenicia because their main focus was trade. A statue of a Phoenician King Economic The Phoenician Economic system was mainly based on trade. Trade was the main source of money and was the main focus of the Phoenician civilization. At the start of the Phoenician civilization, the barter system was used. It was soon replaced by metallic coins (Arados, Marathos, and Sidon). Arados- a coin in the Phoenician civilization Social The caste system of the Phoenician civilization was very similar to the Babylonian and Sumerian caste system. The king would be at the top. Nobles and wealthy merchants came next. Farmers and Commoners came after them. The lowest level was the slaves. Phoenician king and nobles. Decline The Phoenician empire was basically connected to the huge Persian empire. When Alexander the Great Conquered Persia in 330 bce, the Phoenician civilization fell. Alexander the Great conquering Phoenicia Facts Phoenicia was a very small empire but was able to trade throughout the Mediterranean sea, the middle east, and in Africa. The trade network of the Phoenician civilization. Sumerian,
Babylonian, and Phoenician civilization By: Mr. Kronenberg and Colin Kaepernick Sargon of Akkad Works Cited Smitha, Frank E. "Macro History and World Report." fsmitha.com. <http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/religion-sumer.htm> June 1st, 2012. < http://www.skwirk.com.au/p-c_s-14_u-472_t-1285_c-4932/VIC/8/Government/Ancient-Sumer-Part-A/Ancient-Sumer/History/ > http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/MiddleEast/Sumer.html < >
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