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The Journey of Human Development
Transcript of The Journey of Human Development
to prenatal development are... How does parenting influence our childhood? When does life begin? What are the stages of prenatal development? What is harmful to the unborn person? Jeremiah 1:5 Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you Psalm 139:13 For you formed my inward parts; you knitted me together in my mother's womb Genesis 2:7 Then the Lord God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature. Scientifically, many will say that life begins when the DNA of the male sperm penetrates the female egg, but God has had plans for that human life before the man and woman came together Germinal Period Embryonic Period Fetal Period Sperm fertilizes the egg 0-2 weeks Cell division Multicellular organism attaches to uterine wall 2-8 weeks Rate of cell differentiation intensifies Support systems for cells form Organs appear 8 weeks-birth Dramatic growth and development of the unborn person Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Pre-term/low birth weight
are the biggest risks to infant development Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
is the leading cause of death among infants Over the counter, prescription,
and illegal drugs Stress/anxiety Abortion Smoking Poor nutrition Illness Sexually transmitted diseases Mother's age Infancy What are major risks to infants' lives? When do they sleep? What do they eat? When do they start responding? It is essentially an unexplainable death- there is no known cause of SIDS Low birth weight and pre-term babies can undergo massage or kangaroo therapy to help them gain weight and continue development Massage therapy requires that the baby is massages several times a day Kangaroo therapy involves the baby swaddled closely to the caregiver to encourage mimicking heartbeat and breathing and to experience touch Infants sleep... All the time! Infants require 16-17 hours of sleep a day
They will not gain adultlike patterns (sleeping through the night) until about 3 months of age Infants eat... All the time! In the first year of life, infants will triple their body weight and increase in length by 50% Infants start responding... Right away! Infants have certain reflexes that help them to survive in the dangerous world around them Parenting Styles Authoritarian How do peers affect childhood? Why do children play? When do children start talking? These types of parents place high value on obedience and respect for authority. They tend to produce children with low independence, low self-esteem, and an external locus of control Permissive These types of parents impose minimal control or limits on their children. They tend to produce children with poor self-control and poor social skills Authoritative These types of parents enforce clear boundaries and rules, but allow for some verbal give and take with their children. They tend to produce children who become self-reliant, self-controlled, and high achieving Children play for social and cognitive development Parten's Levels of Social Play Unoccupied- disengaged; no verbal, physical, or visual engagement with peers Onlooking- observing play from afar; visual engagement, focusing, and moving for a better vantage point. May have some verbal engagement. Solitary- engaged in solitary play; sustained on task activities; may play in proximity with others, but play activities do not match those of others. This type of play has the greatest impact on the cognitive development of children Parallel- plays in proximity with others; activities and objects are the same or similar, but no sharing occurs Associative- plays in proximity with others; focus is on the interaction, not on coordinating play activities Cooperative- plays in proximity with others; interacts on the topic of play and there is a division of labor and roles. This type of play is most beneficial to the social development of children Children have the capacity for language in the womb Children begin language development even in the prenatal stage of life, but the most rapid learning of language occurs in childhood. Although they pick up a lot of speech naturally, I think that Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development gives a good example of how influential parents, siblings, and peers are to the language development of children. Four aspects of language development in children are... 1. The ability to perceive/produce sounds that make up a language to convey meaning to other people (phonology) 2. Knowledge of the meanings of the words in a language (semantics) 3. The ability to put words together in grammatically appropriate ways (grammar/syntax) 4. Ability to effectively use language to communicate with others (pragmatics) Peers have a huge impact on children's development Peer influence is huge in childhood. The negative effects of bullying especially have a large impact on children's lives. Types of bullying: Direct- this can be physical or verbal Indirect- social exclusion or spreading rumors Cyberbullying- the use of the internet to spread unwanted pictures, hateful websites, etc. Effects of bullying: Internalizing emotions (sad, depressed, loneliness, anxiety) Externalizing (aggression/violence) School problems (dislike, avoidance, or dropping out) Adolescence How are adolescents growing? What are the dangers faced in adolescence? What are some health issues
of adolescents? Adolescents bodies and brains are "growing" rapidly Brain The leading cause of death in adolescence is accidents The three highest rates of adolescent death occur in the categories accidents, violence, and suicide Sexuality plays a large role in adolescence Adolescents are moving from asexual beings to sexual beings Adolescent's brains are going through a pruning stage; they have an abundance of neurological connections and the brain must "cut back" some of these connections. Their frontal lobe is still not fully developed, so adolescents do not reason with the ability of an adult. They have developed enough, however, to begin to use reason and logic (formal operations); they do not have a fully developed ability to reason. Body Adolescents experience rapid growth and development during puberty. Girls typically begin changing before boys, and body image plays a huge role in girls' adolescent stage. What part does sexuality play
in adolescence? Hormones due to puberty are a huge factor in this shift Sexual identity develops- gender identity, sexual orientation, sexual exploration, etc. Sexually transmitted diseases are prevalent during this period of sexual exploration Pregnancy is higher in teens than ever before; evidence of this in media are t.v. shows such as "16 and Pregnant" or "Teen Mom" Health issues in adolescents are... Sleep deprivation Eating habits/disorders STDs Pregnancy Adolescents need increased amounts of sleep due to their rapid growth, but many actually sleep less than they did as children. Diet also needs to be improved as adolescents grow, but often hormones cause a poor diet that does not promote healthy habits. Eating disorders are also common in this age group because of the vulnerability that puberty brings to self-image, especially in girls. Sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are common because of adolescents' neglect of protected sex. They are prone to risky behavior, and STDs and pregnancy are a consequence of that factor. & Adulthood
Emerging Adulthood What are the key features of emerging adulthood? How do you know when you are an adult? What conflicts must we resolve? What are we best at as young adults? Five features of emerging adulthood The age of identity exploration We are trying to find out who we are; we need to find a place in the world in matters of love and work. Love means we are searching for our soul mate, and we are searching for self-fulfillment in our work. The age of instability The average number of job changes in ages 20-29 is 7. Emerging adults are frequently moving and changing jobs because of transitioning to and from college and searches for self-fulfillment The self-focused age Emerging adults are much more independent from their parents than when in adolescence; they are able to set their own expectations. They also experience relatively few ties to any people, places or things, giving them freedom to explore their own interests and desires. The age of feeling in-between Society has deemed emerging adults "not yet adults," but responsible enough to not act like kids or adolescents. The age of possibilities With all the new freedom and little family responsibility, emerging adults have possibilities open to them on all sides. The main question asked by this group is "will my life be like my parents' life?" Four ways to know you are officially an adult! Graduation Marriage Career Children Arielle's Social Clock According to Erikson, we must resolve two conflicts as adults Identity vs. Role Confusion As emerging adults, we are still continuing the process of finding out who we are. Our identity is now starting to be found in work and "who we want to be when we grow up." Intimacy vs. Isolation Adults have a huge conflict to resolve- finding love. We have a longing for intimacy, especially through means of marriage. Love is a theme in emerging adulthood, but intimacy is mainly a conflict to solve in adulthood, as we saw with marriage being a marker of adulthood. As young adults, we are best at being creative No other time in our life will we achieve such creativity as when we are young adults A beautiful example of children's ability to communicate Retirement can be
relaxing and taxing! Positives of Retirement: Late Adulthood
Death & Dying Is retirement relaxing, or taxing? How does ageism effect us? What are the stages of death? What are other issues older adults face? Enjoyment of leisure time
More opportunity to spend time with grandchildren Negatives of Retirement: Loneliness Depression Poor health Ageism Ageism Ageism affects many Americans, and is among the highest form of discrimination today. Some stereotypes that are associated with ageism are that older adults are... Boring
Unable to drive
A lot of older adults experience ageism in the realm of medical or mental health problems. Many are misdiagnosed because their ailments are contributed to their age. Other issues facing older adults Polypharmacy: the use of multiple prescriptions that may harmfully effect a person when used together Hydration: we may be "overdiagnosing" for dimensia instead of dehydration; often older adults will restrict their water intake in order to avoid incontinence Bedsores: bed-ridden adults are prone to bed-sores, which can be a sign of neglect or elder abuse. In order to combat some feeling such as loneliness or depression, or to engage in mental stimulation, older adults will often engage in reminiscence therapy, which involves telling stories of the past. Kubler-Ross 5 Stages of Death Denial "It is not happening to me" "I did nothing to cause this" Anger "How dare God do this to me" "I don't deserve this" Bargaining "Just let me live to see my son graduate" "God, let me live and I can do more work for you/ I will stop sinning." Depression "I can't bear to go through this (or to put my family through this" "If only I could have..." Acceptance "I'm ready" "I have lived a full life" Behaviorism & Reflexes Behaviorism states that the mind is a black box. B.F. Skinner believed that all humans were incapable of independent thought; we only make decisions based on reinforcement experienced throughout our lives. In my mind, the evidence of reflexes in babies contrasts this idea. The babies are responding to a stimulus, but they have not been conditioned to do so. They are born with these innate behaviors, which means there must be some sort of intrinsic information in our brains or in our DNA that promotes independent thought; we are not just responders, we are independent thinkers and reactors.