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Ch. 7 - The Endocrine System and Reproduction

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by

Greg Evans

on 8 January 2015

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Transcript of Ch. 7 - The Endocrine System and Reproduction

Ch. 7 - The Endocrine System and Reproduction
7.1 - The Endocrine System
Produces chemicals that control many of the body's daily activities, also regulates growth and development.
7.3 - The Human Life Cycle
When does human development begin?
Made up of a system of glands that produce and release specific chemicals.
How are glands like sweat glands different from endocrine glands?
Hormones
The chemical product of an endocrine gland that gets released into the blood stream.
Hormones are chemical messengers that turn on/off, speed up, or slow down activities within the body.
Hormone production can be triggered by the brain or sometimes other endocrine glands.
Hormones usually cause a slower but longer lasting response than your nerves do.
Hormones are only recognized by target cells, each hormone has a specific target cell like a lock and key.
Functions of the Endocrine Gland
Hypothalamus
- links the nervous and endocrine systems, produces hormones that control other endocrine glands and organs
Pituitary Gland
- communicates with hypothalamus to control body activities, also produces growth hormones
Negative Feedback
the system is turned off by the condition it produces
Why is this important?
Development Before Birth
Zygote
- fertilized egg
Embryo
- from the two-cell stage to through the eighth week of development
Fetus
- from the ninth week of development until birth
Protection and Nourishment
Amniotic Sac
- membrane bound, fluid filled sac that surrounds the embryo
Placenta
- link between the mother and the embryo, the embryo's blood vessels are located next to the mother's blood vessels
Umbilical Cord
- ropelike structure that forms between the fetus and the placenta
There is a thin barrier between the fetus and the mother, however substances like alcohol and chemicals in drugs and tobacco smoke can pass through.
Birth
Three Stages:
Labor
- strong contractions of the uterus which cause the cervix to enlarge, 2-20 hours
Delivery
- baby is pushed out through the vagina head first, umbilical cord is cut, about an hour
Afterbirth
- about 15 minutes after delivery the uterus continues to contract and push the placenta and other membranes out through the vagina, less than 1 hour
Multiple Births
Two types of twins:
identical twins
- develop from a single fertilized egg
fraternal twins
- two eggs are released from the ovary and fertilized by two different sperm
Growth and Development
Infancy
- first two years of life
head is 1/4 of body when born
3 months - hold up head, 7 months - crawl, 10 months - walking
Childhood
- from 2 - about 9
become more coordinated, increased curiosity and mental ability
Adolescence
- stage of development at which children become adults physically and mental
able to think like adults and take on adult responsibilities
puberty
is the period of sexual development in which the body becomes able to reproduce
Adulthood
- after the age of about 30 the process of aging begins, this can be slowed with diet and exercise
http://www.hormone.org/hormones-and-health/the-endocrine-system/endocrine-glands-and-types-of-hormones
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