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OM Research Presentation

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Beverly Alford

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of OM Research Presentation

Prior Experience Systematic Classroom Observation of the Quality of Teacher Behaviors and Student Engagement in Ethnically Diverse Pre-Kindergarten through Second Grade Classrooms Dissertation Research Introduction Ongoing Research Research Presentation
University of Mississippi
May 2, 2013 Beverly L. Alford, PhD Early Childhood Educator 1993 - 2007 Pre-K teacher - 15 years Texas A&M University 2009-2013 Intern
Full-time research associate
Post graduation - senior research associate
Currently - assistant director
Skills - Writing grant proposals, developing instruments, coordinating research activities, collecting data, analyzing quantitative & qualitative data, disseminating results (technical reports, articles, conference presentations)
Co-principal investigator on 5 grants; primary researcher on 10 grants University Teaching *face-to-face, online, blended, and field-based courses Courses taught:

Early Childhood Education - Child Development
Technology in Elementary Classrooms
Teaching and Schooling in the Modern Society
Planning and Curriculum Development for Early Childhood Educators
Trends in Curriculum and Instruction
The Young Child and Early Childhood Education
Foundations of Education in a Multicultural SocietyTeaching/Learning Processes: Psychological Perspectives on Education Background
High quality ECE
Current ECE classroom quality
Two instructional philosophies

Framework for Study
Review of research
Research questions High quality EC programs Better student socio-emotional & cognitive outcomes Greater success in school and later in life Current ECE Classroom Quality exceptional variability the most "at-risk"
children are least likely
to be enrolled
in high quality
ECE programs typical child
receives mostly
instruction large % of
minority students
receive more
didactic instruction Teacher-directed instruction Traditional approach Constructivist approach Learner-centered instruction Two Instructional Positions Purpose of Study To observe pre-k through second-grade public school classrooms—specifically noting child-centered and teacher-directed pedagogical approaches—by simultaneously examining: student behavior and activity structure, teacher instructional orientation and rationale, and overall classroom environment Research Questions 1. In what types of activities are young children participating in EC classrooms? Methodology Results & Discussion Practical and Policy Implications Conclusions Research Interests United Way of Greater Houston UW Bright Beginnings TAMU Collaborative Additional Research Projects Questions? Thank you! Sample Data analysis 18 of the 21 elementary schools in a large, metropolitan school district
91 classrooms (pre-k through 2nd grade)
Class sizes ranged from 10-25 students Setting 450 ethnically diverse students (stratified random sample by sex and ethnicity)
91 classroom teachers Instruments PK2 Student Behavior Observation Schedule
PK2 Teacher Roles Observation Schedule
PK2 Overall Classroom Observation Measure Percentage of Economically Disadvantaged Students, LEP Students, and Campus Achievement Rating by School Ethnic Breakdown of Students by Grade-Level 3 Systematic Observation Instruments Participants Quantitative study Descriptive statistics - activity types
Factor analysis on 21 student activity types; follow-up 3-way MANOVA - sig. diff. by sex, ethnicity, grade-level on activity types
Factor analysis on 31 teacher instructional behaviors; follow-up MANOVA - sig. diff. by grade-level on teacher instructional behaviors
2-way MANOVA - sig. diff. by % econ. disad, % LEP on instructional orientation; post hoc tests
Multiple regression analyses - extent to which activity structures, teacher behavior impacted academic engagement Student Activity Types Instructional Practices Instructional Differences
by School Characteristics Instructional Differences on Student Engagement Mean Percentage Values of Student Activity Types (n=450) Mean Percentage Values of Classroom Activity Structure (n=92) Mean Percentage Values of Instructional Orientation Types (n=92) Mean Percentage Values of
Teacher Purpose of Interaction (n=91) Mean Percentage Values of Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Practices (n=92) Summary Statistics for MANOVA Results for Student Engagement by Teacher Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Practices (DAIP) Score Summary Statistics for MANOVA Results for Student Activity Type by Teacher Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Practices (DAIP) Score Summary of Results Early childhood education in classrooms was standardized Ultimately, the answer to providing effective instruction for young children lies in bridging the gap between developmentally appropriate practices and direct instruction, striking a successful balance between both ideologies and approaches An early childhood program in Houston, designed to help children from lower income families achieve social, emotional, physical, and cognitive milestones and enter school ready to succeed An urban education initiative involving 29 non-profit agency programs that deliver educational services for 275,000+ children and youth from disadvantaged circumstances in the Houston metropolitan area: Pedagogy of play

Classroom observation

ECE teacher quality

Family- and community-centered approaches to ECE School “success” is being defined by standardized test scores; and formal, “academic” ECE settings continue to be the norm, not the exception Key findings were used as a baseline for the development of the National Center for Educator Development in Doha, Qatar Texas A&M University Teacher Collaborative :: Designed & implemented in fall 2009 to address the disconnect in Texas between high school coursework and college and career readiness Review of Research 3 key areas: Literature Findings Classroom observation is a necessary and appropriate alternative to direct student assessment as a measure of effective early childhood practice ECE classroom observation studies and

ECE teacher instuctional quality

Children's engagement in preschool and early elementary school settings Research Assistant - ECE professor
Teaching Assistant - ECE professor
- The Young Child and Early Childhood Education
- Planning and Curriculum Development for Early Childhood Education Education Research Center Graduate Assistantship 2007-2009 two research questions re: student activities: 1. In what types of activities are young children participating in early childhood classrooms? descriptive statistics (mean values) 2. Are there differences in activity types by student sex, ethnicity, and/or grade-level? factor analysis - 10 factors 2/ eigenvalues >1
three-way MANOVA - did not yield a significant model two research questions re: instructional practices: 3. To what extent are teachers of students in pre-kindergarten and early elementary classrooms utilizing child-centered instructional practices versus more didactic, direct-instructional approaches? 4. Are there differences by grade-level in teacher instructional behavior? descriptive statistics (mean values) factor analysis - 12 factors w/ eigenvalues > 1
2 one-way MANOVAs - did not yield significant models Note. "Other" = Assessing, transitioning, and/or engaging in other non-instructional activities. Note. 3-point scale (1=not observed at all, 2=observed once or twice, 3=observed 3 or more times. one research question re: instructional differences by school characteristics: 5. How does ECE instruction differ by school characteritics, such as percentage of economically disadvantaged students and percentage of limited English proficient (LEP) students? 2 one-way MANOVAs - did not yield significant models one research question re: instructional differences on student engagement: 2 setwise multiple regressions - significant models, but only accounted for 3% and 4% of the variance 6. How does student-centered vs. teacher-centered instruction impact students' academic engagement (e.g., on-task vs. off-task behaviors two research questions re: student activity types: 1. In what types of activities are young children participating in early childhood classrooms ? descriptive statistics (mean values) 2. Are there differences in student activity types by sex, ethnicity, and/or grade-level ? factor analysis - 10 factors w/ eigenvalues > 1
three-way MANOVA - did not yield a significant model Mean Percentage Values of Student Activity Types (n=450) Needs Assessment of PD for administrators & teachers in Qatar Independent Schools iPads in Teacher Preparation Experimental study; examined the usage of iPads in teacher preparation courses; specifically, whether or not a relationship existed between students’ iPad use and their frequency of utilizing technology, in general, for academic purposes Evaluation of International Baccalaureate Schools (IB) in Texas Examinination of the impact of IB PYP and MYP programmes on Texas students’ reading and mathematics achievement Three specific UWGH projects are being implemented over the next several years to improve education in Houston: (a) Early Grade Reading Program (b) Education Collaborative (c) Parent Education & Support Program Purpose: Recruit and train volunteers to act as readers and tutors, with the goal of increasing the reading abilities of students reading below grade level. Purpose: To demonstrate the results and value of United Way agencies' work as related to their education collaborative. "Community change around academic success." Purpose: To provide high-quality parent support program using an evidence-based model. Progam is intended to educate parents re: child development, their rights and responsibilities within the shool setting, and the importance of assisting their children in school. Study design Conclusions Utilized Secondary Graduate Certification Program cohort to integrate CCRS Provided opportunities for teaching CCRS-based lessons, planning with colleagues, and observing other teachers Fostered direct correlation between attainment of content knowledge and classroom practice
Facilitated monitoring by TAMU faculty of pre-service teachers’ growth in implementing CCRS Model was successful in increasing preservice teachers' confidence in their ability to implement CCRS. Students indicated that CCRS were not being implemented in their respective schools. If high-stakes testing continues to focus on the state standards, school districts will continue to disregard these standards and maintain their current focus. School district personnel, administrators, and current in-service teachers are in need of professional development related to CCRS. Self-Assessment Tool Goal: To provide teacher preparation programs with a means of understanding and evaluating the states of their respective teacher education programs Six different surveys were created:
1. Current Student
2. Former Student
3. Mentor Teacher
4. Teacher Education Administrator
5. Teacher Education Faculty
6. School-based Administrator Survey items were adapted from:
- Other similar surveys
- Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills standards
- College and Career Readiness Standards
- Widely accepted best practices within the various concentration areas Video Case Study Purpose: To document the processes of change that pre-service teachers experienced as they progressed from their internships to becoming classroom teachers

From an informational standpoint, these videos are beneficial to teacher preparation programs that are implementing the CCRS and TEKS Example Video: Project Goals 1. Examine & enhance TAMU’s model for educator preparation, including integration of College & Career Readiness Standards (CCRS) into curriculum 2. Establish a collaborative network that provides a robust linkage between K-12 & post-secondary levels 3. Develop a self-assessment tool to be administered to all collaborative pre-service teachers 4. Develop a video case study to illustrate & communicate the potential of the TAMU Educator Preparation Collaborative model Instruments & procedures PK2 Student Behavior Observation Schedule (low-inference) PK2 Teacher Roles Observation Schedule (low-inference) PK2 Overall Classroom Observation Measure (high-inference) *Low-inference measures do not require observer to make any high inferences (judgments) about observed behavior in the classroom; provides specific and easy identifiable behaviors that can be easily coded Importance of looking at classrooms from multiple perspectives of teacher, students, and overall class. Most prior studies only focus on the teacher Observed each student and teacher for about 10 different intervals during the observation period PK2 Overall COM was used at the end of the 30-minute observation period Mean inter-rater reliabilities across all observers were: PK2 Student Behavior Observation Schedule, M=0.98; PK2 Teacher Roles Observation Schedule, M=0.97; and PK2 Overall Classroom Observation Measure, M=0.91

Students from poor families and/or families of color received even more inadequate, didactic instruction than did their middle-class, non-minority counterparts Whether or not children are "engaged" has been shown to affect the overall process of knowledge acquisition Academic engagement has been defined as "on-task" versus "off-task" student behavior during specific classroom activities Strong support for the continued investigation of the types of activities in which young children are participating in ECE classrooms 2. Are there differences in activity types by student sex, ethnicity, and/or grade level? 3. To what extent are teachers of students in pre-k and early elementary classrooms utilizing child-centered instructional practices versus more didactic, direct-instructional approaches? 4. Are there differences by grade level in teacher instructional behaviors? 5. How does ECE instruction differ by school characteristics, such as % of economically disadvantaged students and % of LEP students? 6. How does student-centered vs. teacher-centered instruction impact students’ academic engagement (e.g., on-task vs. off-task behaviors)? Product-oriented Didactic, rote-style environment Memorization, lists, "right v. wrong" tasks Focus on academic facts, basic skills, readiness for next grade Process-oriented Acknowledges young children as individual, active participants in their own learning NAEYC-supported Focus on the whole child, not just cognitive component
composite score for ECE Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Practices (DAIP) was calculated
- used eight developmentally appropriate instructional teacher behaviors to create a new variable (DAIP)

- averaged the eight behaviors
two categories emerged:
1. low DAIP (M</= 2)
2. high DAIP (M>/=2) 2 follow-up MANOVAs
Current environment (i.e., increased teacher accountability tied to measurable academic outcomes) makes individualizing instruction/viewing children as distinct beings a challenging task National Research Council has recommended that pre-service education programs offer deeper and more specific infrastructure to future teachers in child development, social & affective behavior, and children’s thinking Institutions that offer undergraduate early childhood programs must identify and strike the critical balance of meeting the needs of young children while preparing pre-service teachers careers of high-stakes expectations
At district & state levels, 3Ms: MENTOR pre-service & new teachers; MODEL quality ECE classrooms/programs; MONITOR teachers via classroom observation Little to no variation existed in the activities in which young children were engaged or in instructional practices utilized by ECE teachers No differences in student behavior and teacher practices by student sex, student ethnicity, grade-level, English language proficiency, and/or economic status 3 significant findings showed that students taught by teachers with:
a high DAIP score were more likely to be on-task, less likely to be off-task
a high DAIP score were more likely to be working kinesthetically, answering questions, and freely exploring
a low DAIP score were more likely to be distracted and/or not engaging in activity Systematic observation of tutoring sessions

Teacher surveys

Volunteer surveys

Volunteer interviews

Tutor reading logs

Reading benchmark scores Approximately 20 affiliate agency partners

Develop prescribed outcomes/academic and socio-emotional indicators of success (ongoing communication, regular meetings)

Analysis of collaborative progress (agency surveys and interviews, agency site visits)

Established an MOU for data sharing between large Houston ISDs and United Way agencies (analysis of aggregated school data from 20 agencies) Assist in selecting appropriate outcomes and indicators for parent program success (ongoing meetings)

Measure and report the initial academic impact to the youth served (student achievement data, per MOU)

Measure changes in skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of participating parents (parent surveys) 25 childcare centers; birth through 5-years

Mixed-methods approach for formative and summative purposes:
(a) exploring PD offerings, teachers/directors PD perceptions
(b) reviewing current literature regarding PD efficacy and how Bright Beginnings aligns with the five key features of PD
(c) offering recommendations regarding how Bright Beginnings could effectively employ fewer third-party trainers while maintaining current program integrity and standards
(d) providing cost efficiency recommendations Credentialed director at EC school - 5 years Master coach (authentic ECE assessment) - 3 years w/ public & private schools Presented at ECE conferences, seminars, & trainings to parents, teachers, & school/district administrators Examining the effectiveness of educational programs and practices
Focusing on developing a longitudinal, data-based system to describe the quality and effectiveness of educational programs on students, teachers, parents, and the community as a whole Utilizing systematic observations, interviews, surveys, and quantitative outcome data to describe and evaluate program components Project Design Components
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