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APWH Ch. 14-Economic Transformations:Commerce & Consequence

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Marissa Burts

on 11 February 2014

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Transcript of APWH Ch. 14-Economic Transformations:Commerce & Consequence

Chapter 14: Economic Transformations
By: Marissa Burts, Alissa Cammarata, Acacia Stanley, and Anna Kate Lawshe
European and Asian Commerce
Silver and Global Commerce
The "World Hunt": Fur in global commerce
Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade

A Portuguese Empire of Commerce
Asians & Asian Commerce
The Slave Trade in Context
The Slave trade In Practice
Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa
The Slave trade took an estimated 12.5 million people from Africa and 10.7 arrived in the Americas.
14% died in during the transatlantic journey, The Middle Passage
Spain and the Philippines
The East India Companies
Transformation of Participants
African diaspora created racially mixed societies in Americas
Introduces elements of African Culture-Religion, Musical/artistic traditions, and cuisine
Profits of slave trade and slavery enriched European/Euro-American societies
Slavery=Metaphor for social oppression
Africa has practiced slavery and sold slaves for centuries.
Early 17th century, the Dutch and the English muscle out the portuguese in the indian ocean using military and economic strengths
The British and Dutch governments gave their trading companies power to make war and govern conquered peoples
Dutch focused on Indonesia. English focused on India.
Trans-Saharan trade funneled African captives to Mediterranean
East African slave trade brought Africans to Middle East & Indian Ocean basin.
Spanish and Portuguese both made efforts to get involved in Indian Ocean commerce.
Motivation from Asian spices and competing states.
Silver Trade
British trading company in canton
The British were less financed and less sophisticated.
3 major establishments on land (seclusion from Indian Ocean Basin)
Bombay, Calcutta,and Madras.
No "trade by warfare"
Bribes to Mughal empire

Slavery took Many forms:
Children of slaves inherited slave status
Islamic world favored female slaves; Atlantic slave trade favored males
The silver trade was more important than the spice trade.
Silver deposits were found in Bilvia and Japan
Native Americans under the authority of the Spanish
largest silver traders which is thought to have led to Spain's death with the defeat of the Spanish.

Portuguese didn't have sufficient goods for trade so they took to piracy.
Forcibly obtained bases at key locations on trade routes.
Created trading post empire to control trade not territories of populations.
Gradually assimilated to Asian trade
Carried Asian goods to Asian markets.
Many Portuguese settled in Asian and African trade posts.
Japanese Government
Tokugawa used silver profits to defeat rivals and unify the country.
The shotguns allied with the country's merchant class to grow a Market based economy
also to develop majorily in agriculture and industrial enterprises.


Distinctiveness of slavery in Americas
Scale/importance was enormous in Americas
Largely based on plantation agriculture w/ slaves=dehumanized property
Little hope of freedom
Widespread slavery in a place in a society that valued human freedom and equality (ironic right?)
Origins
Origins lay in Mediterranean w/ sugar production
Africans=primary source of labor
Religious justification
Native Americans perished due to disease
Europeans=exempt (too good for manual labor)
Africans had immunity to tropical & European diseases, weren't Christian & were readily available
First to challenge the Portuguese monopoly on Asian spice trade.
Established trading post in Philippines.
Philippines had no sole authority, separated into chiefdoms.
Spanish gained full colonial rule.
Launched large missionary efforts.
Manila was the capital of the Philippines.
Had very diverse population.
Slave Trade driven by European demand.
Instead of raiding for slaves, Europeans traded freely w/ African merchants & elites.
Caused destabilization of African societies
Increasing pace of Atlantic Slave Trade
High point in 1750s, more than 60,000 slaves brought to Americas each year
Who Was Enslaved?
THE JAPANESE CASE STUDY
People from N. Africa
Mostly people from marginal groups
Prisoners of ar, criminals, debtors, people who had been "pawned"
Those captured and sold were usually outsiders or vulnerable people.
Spanish,Dutch, and English traders come in the mid 16 th century in a time of conflict
However, a series of leaders unite japan a supreme leader.
for two centuries, all Europeans and Spanish are banned and all citizens are banned from traveling ( except Dutch traders)
Ties remain to China and Korea by the Japanese.
¿Where'd They Go?
80% of slaves ended up in Brazil or the Caribbean
5-6% in North America
The rest in mainland Spanish America or Europe
15% died suring Middle Passage
Slow of Africa's population growth, while Europe & China still expanded
Negative Political Effects
European trade is less significant and European political control is much less significant.
To the large powers of Asia-Mughal India,China, and Japan-Europeans showed no threat and were minor parts of the overall economy.
In India, large families dominate the buying and selling of European products.
SE Asian ports were dominated by the spice trade.

Generated economic stagnation & political disruption in Africa
Did not generate Artisan breakthroughs
Stimulated little positive change in Africa b/c those who benefited from slavery did not invest in productive capabilities.
Political Effects
Moral Corruption
Women felt impact of the trade
Unbalanced women:men ratio
For some women, opportunity to accumulate and exercise wealth arose
Signals: cross-cultural marriages
Fur became a major item of commerce, along with silver, textiles, and spices
Supply of fur-bearing animals in Europe was sharply diminished by 1500s
Caused by population growth & agricultural expansion
The Little Ice Age increased demands for furs.
There was intense competition in the fur trade:
French prominent in Great Lakes and Mississippi River
British: Hudson Bay Region
Dutch:Hudson River, in what is now New York
All frequent rivals for the great prize: North American Furs
North American Fur Trade


Silver trade was the first to a global network of exchange.
spanish America produced 85% of the worlds silver
Most of the silver supply ended up in China
Potosi, Bolivia was the largest city in the Americas due to being the largest silver mine
The fur trade became one of the main gaining enterprise in North America captivating, at different times, competition among the French, British, Dutch, Spanish, and Russians.
Earliest explorers were French and fishermen who arrived in now called Canada during the early 1500's
Trade began after the French gave the Indians kettles, knives, and other gifts as a means to establish friendship.
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