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American Growth - Unit #7
Transcript of American Growth - Unit #7
following the Civil War...
westward movement intensified
era of the American Cowboy
Westward Movement and Immigration
settlers streamed west from the Mississippi
Americans had to rebuild their war-torn lives
the government offered "incentives" to those wanting to move west
Homestead Act of 1862
offered free public land in western territories
settlers had to agree to work/live on the land for 5 years
new technologies opened up new lands in the West
linked the east coast with the west coast
made farming profitable
What do you think happens in the years following the Civil War?
cattle drives for hundreds of miles over open land
Southerners, including African Americans moved west to seek new opportunities
forcible removal of American Indians continued...
By the turn of the century, Great Plains and Rocky Mountains were becoming farms, ranches, and towns
people came from
ex: Germany, Great Britain, Norway and Sweden
1870's - 1920s
people came from southern and eastern Europe
ex: Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, Hungary and Yugoslavia
Immigrants came to America seeking freedom and better lives
Immigrants made valuable contributions to the growth of America
Chinese workers helped build the Transcontinental Railroad
Immigrants worked in the textile, steel mills, and clothing industry
...but often worked for very low pay, with extremely dangerous working conditions
Why did Immigrants come to the United States, how did Immigrants get here, and where did they settle??
Slavs, Italians, and Poles worked in the coal mines of the East
Immigrants came seeking freedom and better lives for their families
Immigrants entered through Ellis Island in New York (East Coast)
How immigrants entered America
Their first view of America was the Statue of Liberty
As immigrants begin to "assimilate" into American society, they faced hostility, resentment, and prejudice
- when a minority group gradually adapts culture of the larger population
Immigrants settled in ethnic neighborhoods in growing cities
These cities grew as manufacturing and transportation centers
What helped to assimilate imigrants into American society?
America becomes a
Prejudice and Resentment towards Immigrants
Americans feared immigrants would take jobs
Prejudice based on religious and cultural differences
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
cut off immigration to America
barred Chinese Immigration for 10 years
prevented Chinese already in the country from becoming citizens
only 3% of population could immigrate
Technological change spurred growth of industry, primarily in northern cities.
New York City
Factories provided jobs, but families were crowded into tenements and slums
The growth of cities caused the need for public services. (sewage, water systems, public transportation)
NYC - first subway system
Other cities - trolley or streetcar lines
3 reasons for economic transformation
1) laissez-faire capitalism
2) increasing labor supply
3) natural resources
Modern Industrial America
Inventions / Innovations
Carnegie Steel Company (1870s)
died 1919 - worth 298.3 billion (2007)
Carnegie Steel Company
Standard Oil Company
Died 1937 - worth 663.4 billion (2007)
John D. Rockefeller
Made a huge fortune in shipping and railroads
Died - 1877 -Worth 178.4 billion (2007)
Investment banker (financial)
1901 bought out Carnegie steel and merged it with other large steel companies to create U.S. Steel.
Died 1913 - worth 1.39 billion (20% of what he had)
The first billion-dollar company in American history
Worth $1.4 billion
What fueled modern Industrial America?
Corporations (limited liability)
Bessemer Steel Process
Made steel faster, cheaper, and stronger
Corporation - and organization owned by many people
stock - owning a share of a company
Kinetoscope- forerunner of the motion picture projector
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell – Telephone (1876)
The Wright Brothers
Goals of the Progressive Movement
Government controlled by the people
Guaranteed econmic opportunities through government regulation
Elimination of social injustices
Progressive Movement – Working conditions
Dangerous working conditions
Long hours, low wages, no job security, no benefits
Employment of women.
The Progressive Movement used government reforms to fix problems caused by Industrialization
Causes of the Progressive Movement
Excesses of the Gilded Age
Working conditions for labor
following Reconstruction, discrimination against African Americans intensified
Southern States passed laws limiting freedoms of African Americans and forcing racial separation
Intimdation and crimes were directed against African Americans
the Era of "Jim Crow"
African Americans looked to the courts for help
Plessy v. Ferguson
In 1892, in New Orleans, Homer Plessy, bought a first class train ticket
He was ejected by the train conductor for riding in a whites only car
He was arrested in New Orleans from violating the segregation law; fined $25 or 20 days in jail
In 1896 the US Supreme Court heard his case on appeal
Plessy v. Ferguson
supreme court ruled that "separate but equal" did not violate 14th amendment
African Americans response to segregation
Ida B. Wells
Led an anti-lynching crusade and asked for the federal govt. to help
education was meaningless without equality
Founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleN.A.A.C.P
Booker T. Washington
equality would be achieved through vocational eduction and economic success
NAACP Headquarters - 5th Ave. NYC
The ILGWU was founded in 1900 in New York City by seven local unions, with a few thousand members between them. The union grew rapidly in the next few years but began to stagnate as the conservative leadership favored the interests of skilled workers, such as cutters. This did not sit well with the majority of immigrant workers, particularly Jewish workers, many of whom had strong socialist and anarchist leanings.
International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union
The strike was broken up by United States Marshals and some 12,000 United States Army troops sent in by President Grover Cleveland on the premise that the strike interfered with the delivery of U.S. mail represented a threat to public safety.
The arrival of the military led to further outbreaks of violence. During the course of the strike, 13 strikers were killed and 57 were wounded.
An estimated 6,000 rail workers did $340,000 worth of property damage (about $6,800,000 adjusted for inflation to 2007).
The Pullman Strike occurred when 4,000 Pullman Palace Car Company workers reacted to a 28% wage cut by going on a wildcat strike in Illinois on May 11, 1894, bringing traffic west of Chicago to a halt.
First industrial union in the United States
Led by Eugene V. Debs
Later became socialist presidential candidate
Tried to incorporate a policy of unionizing all railway workers regardless of job
The American Railway Union
The Homestead Strike
The Homestead Steel Works, located southeast of Pittsburgh, was an important segment of Andrew Carnegie's empire. Management and labor had been locked in negotiations for several months when plant general manager Henry C. Frick announced wage cuts of nearly 20 percent. The union balked at the reductions and Frick closed the plant on June 30.
On July 6, the displaced workers opened fire on a barge loaded with 300 Pinkerton agents who were being brought in as strikebreakers. A battle raged for several hours. Three Pinkerton agents and seven strikers (or their supporters) were killed; later, several other men died from their wounds.
The Homestead Strike (pg 433)
The American Federation of Labor
One of the fist federations of labor unions in the United States
Founded by Samuel Gompers and president until death in 1924
Largest union grouping in the United States for the first half of the 20th century.
The American Federation of Labor
On May Day 1886, the workers at the McCormick Harvesting Machine Co. in Chicago began a strike in the hope of gaining a shorter work day. On May 3, police were used to protect strikebreakers and a scuffle broke out; one person was killed and several others injured.
The following day, May 4, a large rally was planned by anarchist leaders to protest alleged police brutality. A crowd of 20,000 demonstrators was anticipated at Haymarket Square, where area farmers traditionally sold their produce. Bad weather kept the numbers down to between 1,500 to 2,000. The gathering was peaceful until a police official, against the mayor's instructions, sent units into the crowd to force it to disperse. At that juncture, a pipe bomb was thrown into the police ranks; the explosion took the lives of seven policemen and injured more than 60 others. The police fired into the crowd of workers, killing four.
A period of panic and overreaction followed in Chicago. Hundreds of works were detained; some were beaten during interrogation and a number of forced confessions was obtained. In the end, eight anarchists were put on trial and seven were convicted of conspiracy to commit murder. Four were hanged in November 1887, one committed suicide and three were later pardoned by the Illinois governor.
The Haymarket Square Riot (pg. 433)
The Knights of Labor
Knights of Labor
American Federation of Labor
American Railway Union
International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union
The Rise of Labor Unions
Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American union leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), as well as five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States.
One of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century.
an 8 hour work day
supported equal pay for women
Abolition of child labor
Creation of worker owned factories
Women, blacks (after 1878), and employers were accepted as members of the Knights of Labor.
The Knights of Labor
City Governments- to make cities less corrupt, more efficient, & more responsive to the people’s needs
Commission form of city government
Small elected representatives
Council/ manager form of city government
Progressive Reform – Local Level
Anti-17th Amendment Political Cartoon
It replaces Article I, Section 3 of the Constitution to the extent that it provides for the direct election of Senators by the people of a state rather than their election or appointment by a state legislature.
No one can know how a citizen voted
All party members can vote for a candidate to run in the general election.
Direction election of U.S. Senators
The Progressive Movement Outcomes – Elections
Allowed citizens to vote on proposed laws direction without going to the legislature
Permitted a group of citizens to introduce legislation and required the legislature to vote on it
Provided voters an option to demand a special election to remove an elected official from office before his or her term had expired.
The Progressive Movement Outcomes – State Government / Elections
MEAT INSPECTION ACT 1906
Sherman Anti-Trust- attempt to breakup trusts
Mediated Coal Strikes- coal was the main energy resource
Hepburn Act- set maximum railroad rates
Pure Food and Drug Act- prohibited misleading labeling
Meat Inspection Act- all meat must be inspected & graded
Elkin Act- illegal for railroads and shippers to offer rebates
Conservation- established several National Parks
Roosevelt’s Square Deal
A series of legislation passed by Roosevelt aimed at giving Americans a fair chance, or a square deal.
“I shall see to it…that every man has a square deal, no less and no more…”
In 1920, the manufacture, possession, or sell of any alcohol in America was made illegal- Prohibition
Destroying, not regulating monopolies
Federal Reserve System
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Federal Trade Commission
Survival of the fittest
Many in America blamed our social problems on alcohol- temperance movement
Prohibition and the Temperance Movement
Passage of the 19th amendment in 1920 gave women the right to vote!
Women’s Suffrage Movement-
a 72 year fight
150 National Forests
51 Federal Bird Reservations
4 National Game Preserves
5 National Parks
18 National Monuments
24 Reclamation Projects
TR CONSERVATION ACCOMPLISHMENTS
TR, AS AN OUTDOORSMAN HIMSELF, SAW HOW PEOPLE COULD DESTROY THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT. HE MADE IT A PRIORITY OF HIS PRESIDENCY TO ADVANCE THE CAUSE OF PRESERVING THE NATURAL RESOURCES OF THE NATION FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS
TR AND JOHN MUIR,
FOUNDER OF THE
PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT AND CONSERVATION
TR VS WALL STREET
TR THE “TRUSTBUSTER”
Twenty-Eighth President 1913-1921
Twenty-Seventh President 1909-1913
Twenty-Sixth President 1901-1909
THE PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENTS
How immigrants entered America
Immigrants entered through Angel Island in San Francisco (west coast)