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Evolution of Evolutionary Thought

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Schaefer Hedgepeth

on 19 September 2012

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Transcript of Evolution of Evolutionary Thought

The History of Evolutionary Thought Greek Philosopher
Wrote a creation myth called Timaeus
He thought that a Craftsman created all living beings with eternal forms Plato (427-327 BC) A student of Plato's
Focused on a "scale of nature"
Placed plants and animals on a scale from imperfect to most perfect Aristotle (384-322 BC) Renaissance man from Italy
Studied many types of sciences, including zoology and paleontology
He believed that fossils were once living organisms that were buried. He thought that these organisms told the history of the Earth. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) John Ray (1628-1705) Lived in Germany
Wrote books on geology and paleontology
De Natura Fossilium (On the Nature of Fossils) was his main contribution to the history of paleontology. It described many fossils, although there were no pictures. Born in England
Explored classification of plants and animals. Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) Created the first microscopes
He was the first to discover and describe bacteria, protists, and different types of cells. Robert Hooke (1635-1703) Wrote Micrographia, which explored many biological concepts
He realized that fossil records showed changes in organisms over time Born in Denmark
Studied rock layers and fossils
His studies built many ideas of geology that are still studied today. Nicholas Steno (1638-1686) Wrote about common ancestry between man and apes 100 years before Darwin in his encyclopedias, Historie Naturelle.
Also suggested that the world was much older than 6,000 years, 40 years before Charles Lyell, in his book Les Epoques de la Nature. Georges-Louis Leclerc (1707-1788) Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Developed a taxonomy of plants
Created the binomial species name, which is now the standard system for naming species
Noticed the struggle for survival
Decided that it was to create balance by a Devine Order Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) Charles Darwin's grandfather
Questioned evolution
Was a very progressive thinker for his time
The Integrative Biology Department at the University of California at Berkely was based on his ideas. Born in France
Created idea of Use and Disuse
Stated that all changes are heritable
Viewed evolution as a process of increasing complexity, which is different than Darwin's theory Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) Born in England and trained for priesthood
His book, Natural Theology: or, Evidences of Existence and the Attributes of the Deity, Collected from the Appearances of Nature, stated that an intelligent designer created animals that were perfectly adapted to their environments. William Paley (1743-1805) His essay, Essay on the Principle of Population, helped Darwin create his theory of Natural Selection
Malthus created the idea that organisms produce more offspring than can survive.
He believed that disease and famine were God's way of keeping population in check Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Did not believe in organic evolution
Classified animals into four branches
Vertebrata
Articulata
Mollusca
Radiata
Believed that these animals were not connected
Established the idea that extinction was absolutely real Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) Smith was from a family of farmers and had little formal education
He used fossils as a tool to map rocks in their stratigraphic order, rather than the composition of the rocks like his predecessors. William Smith (1769-1839) Taxonomist
Synthesized anatomical work of Cuvier and Geoffroy
Gave us terms such as homology
"The same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function"
Thought that all organisms have a common structure or "archetype"
Believed that the Divine Mind had this archetype in mind when he created all creatures. Sir Richard Owen (1804-1892) Born in France
Founded "Functionalist" Biology
The idea that animals are functionally integrated wholes
Grasped the idea of homologous structures Etienne Geoffrey St. Hilaire (1772-1844) Geologist from England
Believed that species were wiped out in cataclysmic events
Believed in Devine Creation over long periods of time Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) Born on a farm in Scotland
Published On Naval Timber and Arboriculture, which was about breeding trees for great ships. His book showed his belief in Natural Selection. Patrick Matthew (1790-1874) Helped discover Ichthyosaurus with her brother
Discovered the first Plesiosaur
Although her findings were displayed in museums, she was not given credit because there was no proper documentation on her discoveries. Mary Anning (1799-1847) Born in Switzerland
Creationist ideas
Four embranchements to classify animals
Vertebrata
Insecta
Vermes
Radiata Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) Boarded HMS Beagle and explored the Galapagos islands.
His studies were published in The Origin of Species
Developed ideas of Natural Selection and Common Ancestry.
Darwin's publishings are the basis of our study of evolution today. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
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