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The possibilities and challenges in using video to improve Learning and Teaching
Transcript of The possibilities and challenges in using video to improve Learning and Teaching
By: Jiamin Jiang and Thi Nguyen The possibilities and challenges in using video to improve Learning and Teaching -Group introduction
-Introduce the topic: The possibilities and challenges in using
video to improve Learning and Teaching Outline Part 1: Possibilities of video teaching Part 2: Challenges of video teaching Schotz, W & Lowe, R., (2003). External and internal representations in multimedia learning. Learning and Instruction 13, pp. 117-123. References: How to make a paper heart "Warm-up activity" Instructive Animation: Helping students build connections between words and pictures
Mayer Richard E, 1992. Explanation What are the benefits of teaching by using video? Modality effect Explanation Discussion Question 2 A dynamic mental model may reduce the load of cognitive processing, but the transitory nature of direct visuals may cause higher cognitive load because learners have less control of their speed of processing. Explanation Think-Pair-Share Do you think making a paper heart by watching video is better than reading the instructions only? The Contiguity Principle states that the effectiveness of multimedia instruction increases when words and pictures are presented contiguously (rather than isolated from one another) in time or space Contiguity Principle
Mayer, R. E. Activity How a Bike Pump Works 1. I know how a bicycle pump works Prior Knowledge Test Questions 2. I own a set of power tool 3. I know how to fix the tap in the bathroom Discussion Question: How YouTube is driving innovation? 1. The focus on core conceptual understanding ensures students build the necessary skills that are applicable in any curriculum used in schools
2. Rich data helps teachers monitor progress and provide focused support
3. Teachers are empowered to make their classroom experiences much more fun, engaging, and social, with less lecturing and more project-based learning and peer tutoring
4. Animations allow a high degree of user control The dual channel assumes that the human can process both auditory and visual amount of information at the same time (Ginns, 2005). An enthusiastic, conversational voiceover style creates a “social presence” Active learning Learners learn more deeply when words are presented in conversational rather than formal style (personalization effect)- Schotz & Lowe (2003) Whole Class Discussion Question: Is video teaching an innovative teaching method? Explanation What causes the limitations of video learning? 1. Videos and software may encourage uncreative, repetitive drilling, and leave kids staring at screens instead of interacting with real live teachers 2. It's better to give kids activities that let them discover the principles of maths and physics on their own 3. It may promote a return to rote learning 4. Drilling software can handle only subjects where the answers are unambiguously right or wrong, like maths or chemistry 5. There is no difference between animations and static illustrations in better learning Dynamic visuals are not generally superior to static visuals because learners with animations were not better with regard to recall and comprehension ( Lewalter in Schotz & Lowe (2003, p. 121) PRACTICE RESULTS COGNITIVE LOAD & REDUNDANCY
CAUSES & EFFECTS 6. Research shows that multiple external representations and multiple modalities are not always beneficial for learning Even animations allow a high degree of user control, considerable support and direction are needed to make them function as effective tool of learning ( Lowe in Schotz & Lowe (2003, p.120) Novices are poorly equipped to identify these aspects within the rich flux of information because they lack the necessary domain-specific background knowledge. Help were found to be effective for learners with medium prior knowledge.
Learners with lower prior knowledge lack the cognitive requirements to make effective use of help.
Learners with higher prior knowledge are unlikely to require the help. ( Seufert in Schotz & Lowe (2003, p.123) Too many visual or audio presentations of help can interrupt semantic processing repeatedly that these interruptions interferred with mental encoding. Words and pictures are two primary media available for multimedia instruction. Ginns, P (2012). Innovating through video-based ICTs tutorials. Leahy, W., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2003). When auditory Presentations should and should not be a component of multimedia instruction. Applied cognitive psychology, (17), 401-418 Mayer, R., E., & Anderson, R. B. (1992). Instructive animation: Helping students build connections between words and pictures in multi-media learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(4), 444-452 Can kids who are struggling will be helped by a film strip? Debate activity Implications for Teachers Teacher should know how to choose videos or software that are suitable to the Australian curriculum Teachers should know when a student is ready to transition between worked examples and less-structured activities A good video instruction design should be supported by learning theories, research and study 8 groups Mayer's Experiment A+N, A+N, A+N
(concurrent) AAA NNN ANANAN AAANNN NANANA NNNAAA CONTROL A=Animation
N=Narration The control group scored significantly lower than each of the other groups and that the remaining seven groups did not differ from one another Mayer's result Retention Test Result Problem solving Test Result Students in the concurrent group performed significantly better in problem-solving test than students in all other groups, and that none of the other groups would differ from one another(Mayer & Anderson, 1992)
The students in concurrent group generated 50% more useful solution to subsequent problem-solving transfer questions than those students who viewed the animation before or after listening to the narration Creativity Test Result The various methods of creating successive presentation of words and pictures did not produce significantly different patterns of results.
On tests of creative problem solving, only the group receiving concurrent
presentation of words and pictures performed better than the group receiving no instruction. Animations without concurrent narrations were no more effective in promoting meaningful learning than no instruction at all THANK YOU ! :] The active learning assumption is that learning occurs when learners engage in active cognitive processing such as concentration, mental organization, metal integration of verbal and visual representations with prior knowledge (Mayer, 2003).