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Literary Criticism FOR DUMMIES

English project
by

Jonah Tulowiecki

on 28 January 2013

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Transcript of Literary Criticism FOR DUMMIES

What is Aristotle's Theory of Tragedy? What is a Tragedy? Characters Melody(Song) Thought Application and Recognition Diction (how to speak in tragedy or not) Examples “Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish its katharsis of such emotions. . . . Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality—namely, Plot, Characters, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Melody.” Aristotle accounts for characters to have moral virtue. However, Aristotle reflects a debate with the relationship of moral virtue and wisdom. Characters in a tragedy also express katharsis (purging) of emotions, such as pity and fear. The Chorus is considered to be one of the actors, as it should take part in the action.
The purpose of having music is to emphasize subtle emotions in the play Simple or Double Words - simply put, it is the meaning or symbolism behind a word. When doubled, usually the meaning becomes symbolic of something important to the play - sometimes unconciously of the characters in the play. translation by S. H. Butcher The plot must have a beginning, middle and end. It is not the story itself,but rather the way incidents are presented. The start must have an event that starts a cause and effect process(incentive moment). The Resolution should resolve the incentive moment. The whole tragedy should be long in duration and convey a serious tone. The plot can be simple or complex, but a complex plot is considered to be better. a) "reversal" (peripeteia): occurs when a situation seems to developing in one direction, then suddenly "reverses" to another.
b) "recognition" (anagnorisis or "knowing again/back/or throughout"): a change from ignorance to awareness of a bond of love or hate. Recognition scenes in tragedy are of some horrible event or secret.
c) "suffering" (pathos): Also translated as "a calamity," the third element of plot is "a destructive or painful act." The English words "sympathy," "empathy," and "apathy" (literally, absence of suffering) all stem from this Greek word. Moral Virtue vs Wisdom If Moral Virtue is present:
Wisdom is absent if the character can not be beheld as good.
If Wisdom is Present:
Moral Virtue is present in the character
If Wisdom is Absent:
Moral Virtue in the full sense, is not to be had without wisdom

Our actions and passions, according to Aristotle specify our good moral values with right reason. Wisdom is said to be such right reason. Current Words - the words often used in everyday context, familiar to the audience. Words that are generally used by the audience in mundane conversation.
Strange Words - the exact opposite of current words. Not archaic or obscure, but maybe of a different language or from a different country. Making the word, both strange and current. Metaphore - usually one of the biggest parts of diction in any play. Tragedies especially use it to convey ideas/thoughts that might not have any connotations in normal speech. Often used to string ideas/thoughts/events in a pattern or symbol. Origins of Aristotle's Tragedy Changed Words - words can be elongated, altered in spelling, or contracted. Occurs in a character's monologue or speech, most often this changing of a word is found when the rhetoric is set with certain perameters that cause the author to change the words to fit with the play. It is usually what gives the play it's unique 'play' on words or memorable phrases. Character Driven Tragedy Tragedy, is generally character driven as their hamartia, the tragic flaw, causes them to choose an action that they might not have thought out. Either way, they will choose the worst option with dramatic consequences. The peripeteia is the essence of a tragedy. It is the choice the character makes that in their 'blindness' doesn't see the end that is in store for them. They create an act of self-destruction that is contrary to their original goals and intent. Usually the character's hamartia, or tragic flaw, causes the peripeteia to occur. Character Driven Plot Event Driven Plot The sequence of events occurs whether or not the characters instigate them. The rest of the story revolves around how the characters react to the events. The characters act as the catalyst of the plot, they delibrately set the events in motion. The plot revolves around the character's decisions and actions. Works Cited Aristotle's third order, Thought, is defined as the faculty of saying what is possible and pertinent in given circumstances.

In the case of oratory, this is the function of the political art and of the art of rhetoric: and so indeed the older poets make their characters speak the language of civic life; the poets of our time, the language of the rhetoricians. Character is that which reveals moral purpose, showing what kind of things a man chooses or avoids. Speeches, therefore, which do not make this manifest, or in which the speaker does not choose or avoid anything whatever, are not expressive of character. Aristotle was a great admirer of Sophocles and his work Oedipus the King
-Aristotle's definition of tragedy followers perfectly into the context and story of this piece. Many of his ideas seem to have came from Sophocles dramas. In recognizing a tragedy one must be able to recognize its elements and understand Aristotle's definition:
“A tragedy is the imitation of an action that is serious and also, as having magnitude, complete in itself; in appropriate and pleasurable language;...in a dramatic rather than narrative form; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish a catharsis of these emotions.”
Basically, a tragedy must contain a serious issue with a great magnitude and stay on the issue. DON'T STRAY AWAY
A chorus to comment, a good rhythm and harmony to what is sung
MUST be dramatized or acted out
Audience must feel sorry for tragic hero and afraid to the destructive end.
A release of tension or catharsis, or reach a moment to where the audience can release its tension and feelings once the tragic hero falls. Thought, on the other hand, is found where something is proved to be or not to be, or a general maxim is enunciated. Aspects of Aristotle's theory of a tragedy can be found in more modern works.
McTeague(1899) ,by Frank Norris, follows the life of a dentist who gets consumed by greed driven by(peripeteia), which leads to him killing his loved ones and his friends
Othello, by William Shakespeare represents the qualities of an Aristotelian tragedy as the main character, Othello, succumbs to jealousy and lies including a complex plot, with recognition (anagnorisis) and a reversal of roles. Characters Defined by Peripeteia The character must be imperfect, in order for the audience to relate to them. "In the final act, King Lear carries his favorite daughter, Cordelia, in his arms as she dies, and he realizes that he was unfair to treat her and everyone the way he had. He realizes his inability to live without hearing her say she loved him caused all of the trouble he goes through, he loses his sanity and dies, which is all a result of his hubris and anger." Hamartia (and no, it's not a sauce) Aristotle refers to the Hero's tragic flaw with Hamartia. This is NOT necessarily an action or willful violation against the God's laws, but rather an excessive behavior with a mistake involved.
"Mistake of Fact", "Moral Flaw", "Moral Error", "Moral Defect", the list continues... Was a student of Plato and Socrates, an influence on Aristotle. Greek Philosopher It would only make sense that Aristotle's Definition of Tragedy would originate from Aristotle himself. Aristotle's "Poetics" explains origins. Major influence on Western Criticism and tradition. The tragic hero's loss leads him or her to some sort of gain in awareness, self-knowledge, or learning. Step by Step don't trip Step I. Identify all the elements characterized by Aristotle Step II. Decide whether or not it is an Aristotelian Tragedy (Hint: if you can find all the elements, then most likely it IS an Aristotelian Tragedy) Step III. the Example (Hint: if this means you don't know what are the elements, please review the previous slides) Recognition and Application (also known as unfamiliar territory) (no driver's license necessary) Death of a Salesman is of crucial importance to literature because it once again raises the question whether tragedy is possible with a common hero. The Aristotelian concept of tragedy, which dominated dramatic literature until the nineteenth century, insists that only characters of noble birth or soul can be tragic heroes. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, however, an increasing number of plays with tragic endings were written about common people. In 1949, concurrent with his play’s appearance on Broadway, Miller published a defense of the play as a genuine tragedy in the essay “Tragedy and the Common Man,” in which he argued that all that is required for tragic stature is a hero willing to “lay down his life” to secure “his ’rightful’ position in his society.” "This leads to Plato's ostensible contempt for the poet's portrayals of life as it is really lived, endless dilemmas, moral tragedies, inner tensions, contingencies, fragility, and all." "It can be argued that Aristotle's texts are committed to a level of clarity, coherence, intelligibilty, and harmony that is deeply anti-tragic, a fundamental insight of tragedy being the impossibility of "making sense" of life in the ways Aristotle attempts." There is the idea that Sophocles directly influenced Aristotle, since Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King. At which, Aristotle used as his origin point in which to describe the basic elements of tragedy. "In King Lear's case, nearly every character he is close to dies as a result of his decision to banish his own daughter Cordelia ... He is filled with so much hubris that he becomes livid over the fact that she will not tell him she loves him..." Aristotle's Ideas about Tragedy. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013.

Cool Hand Socrates.Griswold Jr., Charles L.. American Scholar, Spring1988, Vol. 57 Issue 2, p314, 7p. (Book Review)

McManus, Barbara F. "Outline of Aristotle's Theory of Tragedy." Outline of Aristotle's Theory of Tragedy. CLS 267 Topics Page, Nov. 1999. Web. 06 Jan. 2013

Nienhuis, Terry. "Death Of A Salesman." Masterplots, Fourth Edition (2010): 1-3. Literary Reference Center Plus. Web. 8 Jan. 2013.

Shields, Christopher. Aristotle. Publication. 1st ed. N.p.: Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University, 2008. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). 25 Sept. 2008. Web. 07 Jan. 2013. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle/>.

Smith, A. D. "Character and Intellect in Aristotle's Ethics." JSTOR. JSTOR, Summer 1996. Web. 06 Jan. 2013

Tragedy: The Basics. Rep. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2013. <http://faculty.gvsu.edu/websterm/Tragedy.htm>. Jonathan Bell,
Jake M. Breckner,
Christian D’Orazio-Martin,
Aaron Masters,
Jonah Tulowieki
Mrs. Amy Reed
English 12 Honors
01/23/2013


Table of Contents
I.What is a Tragedy?
II.Chapter 1: Da’ Elements
a.Plot
b.Characters
i.Moral Virtue vs. Wisdom
ii.Hamartia
iii.Character Driven
iv.Peripetetia
c.Melody
d.Diction
e.Thought
III.Origins of Aristotelian Tragedy
IV.Chapter 2: Application and Recognition
a.Step by Step Guide Book
i.Step 1
ii.Step 2
iii.Step 3
V.Chapter 3: Application to Hamlet
VI.Works Cited


Does Aristotle’s Theory of Tragedy Apply to Hamlet? (spoiler alert: it just might)
•What is a Tragedy?
“Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish its katharsis of such emotions. . . . Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality—namely, Plot, Characters, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Melody.”- translation by S. H. Butcher

•Chapter 1: The Elements of Tragedy
oPlot
The plot must have a beginning, middle and end. It is not the story itself,but rather the way incidents are presented. The start must have an event that starts a cause and effect process(incentive moment). The Resolution should resolve the incentive moment. The whole tragedy should be long in duration and convey a serious tone. The plot can be simple or complex, but a complex plot is considered to be better.

a) "reversal" (peripeteia): occurs when a situation seems to developing in one direction, then suddenly "reverses" to another.
b) "recognition" (anagnorisis or "knowing again/back/or throughout"): a change from ignorance to awareness of a bond of love or hate. Recognition scenes in tragedy are of some horrible event or secret.
c) "suffering" (pathos): Also translated as "a calamity," the third element of plot is "a destructive or painful act." The English words "sympathy," "empathy," and "apathy" (literally, absence of suffering) all stem from this Greek word.

oCharacter
Aristotle accounts for characters to have moral virtue. However, Aristotle reflects a debate with the relationship of moral virtue and wisdom. Characters in a tragedy also express katharsis (purging) of emotions, such as pity and fear.
Moral Virtue vs. Wisdom
If Moral Virtue is present: Wisdom is absent if the character can not be beheld as good.
If Wisdom is Present: Moral Virtue is present in the character
If Wisdom is Absent: Moral Virtue in the full sense, is not to be had without wisdom
Our actions and passions, according to Aristotle specify our good moral values with right reason. Wisdom is said to be such right reason.
Hamartia (and no, it’s not a sauce)
Aristotle refers to the Hero's tragic flaw with Hamartia. This is NOT necessarily an action or willful violation against the God's laws, but rather an excessive behavior with a mistake involved. "Mistake of Fact", "Moral Flaw", "Moral Error", "Moral Defect", the list continues...
Character Driven Tragedy
Character Driven: The characters act as the catalyst of the plot, they delibrately set the events in motion. The plot revolves around the character's decisions and actions.

Event Driven: The sequence of events occurs whether or not the characters instigate them. The rest of the story revolves around how the characters react to the events.

Tragedy, is generally character driven as their hamartia, the tragic flaw, causes them to choose an action that they might not have thought out. Either way, they will choose the worst option with dramatic consequences. The peripeteia is the essence of a tragedy. It is the choice the character makes that in their 'blindness' doesn't see the end that is in store for them. They create an act of self-destruction that is contrary to their original goals and intent. Usually the character's hamartia, or tragic flaw, causes the peripeteia to occur.

Characters Defined by Peripeteia
The character must be imperfect, in order for the audience to relate to them.
"In King Lear's case, nearly every character he is close to dies as a result of his decision to banish his own daughter Cordelia ... He is filled with so much hubris that he becomes livid over the fact that she will not tell him she loves him..."
The tragic hero's loss leads him or her to some sort of gain in awareness, self-knowledge, or learning.
"In the final act, King Lear carries his favorite daughter, Cordelia, in his arms as she dies, and he realizes that he was unfair to treat her and everyone the way he had. He realizes his inability to live without hearing her say she loved him caused all of the trouble he goes through, he loses his sanity and dies, which is all a result of his hubris and anger."
oMelody (song)
The Chorus is considered to be one of the actors, as it should take part in the action. The purpose of having music is to emphasize subtle emotions in the play.

oDiction (how to speak in a tragedy or not)
Simple or Double Words - simply put, it is the meaning or symbolism behind a word. When doubled, usually the meaning becomes symbolic of something important to the play - sometimes unconciously of the characters in the play.
Changed Words - words can be elongated, altered in spelling, or contracted. Occurs in a character's monologue or speech, most often this changing of a word is found when the rhetoric is set with certain perameters that cause the author to change the words to fit with the play. It is usually what gives the play it's unique 'play' on words or memorable phrases.
Metaphore - usually one of the biggest parts of diction in any play. Tragedies especially use it to convey ideas/thoughts that might not have any connotations in normal speech. Often used to string ideas/thoughts/events in a pattern or symbol.
Current Words - the words often used in everyday context, familiar to the audience. Words that are generally used by the audience in mundane conversation.
Strange Words - the exact opposite of current words. Not archaic or obscure, but maybe of a different language or from a different country. Making the word, both strange and current.

oThought (also known as Unfamiliar Territory)
Aristotle's third order, Thought, is defined as the faculty of saying what is possible and pertinent in given circumstances. In the case of oratory, this is the function of the political art and of the art of rhetoric: and so indeed the older poets make their characters speak the language of civic life; the poets of our time, the language of the rhetoricians. Character is that which reveals moral purpose, showing what kind of things a man chooses or avoids. Speeches, therefore, which do not make this manifest, or in which the speaker does not choose or avoid anything whatever, are not expressive of character. Thought, on the other hand, is found where something is proved to be or not to be, or a general maxim is enunciated.
•Origin of Aristotle’s Tragedy
Aristotle was a great admirer of Sophocles and his work Oedipus the King
Aristotle's definition of tragedy followers perfectly into the context and story of this piece. Many of his ideas seem to have came from Sophocles dramas.
Aristotle's "Poetics" explains origins. Major influence on Western Criticism and tradition. It would only make sense that Aristotle's Definition of Tragedy would originate from Aristotle himself. Was a student of Plato and Socrates, an influence on Aristotle. Greek Philosopher.
"This leads to Plato's ostensible contempt for the poet's portrayals of life as it is really lived, endless dilemmas, moral tragedies, inner tensions, contingencies, fragility, and all."
“It can be argued that Aristotle's texts are committed to a level of clarity, coherence, intelligibilty, and harmony that is deeply anti-tragic, a fundamental insight of tragedy being the impossibility of "making sense" of life in the ways Aristotle attempts.”
There is the idea that Sophocles directly influenced Aristotle, since Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King. At which, Aristotle used as his origin point in which to describe the basic elements of tragedy.

•Chapter 2: Application and Recognition
In recognizing a tragedy one must be able to recognize its elements and understand Aristotle's definition:
“A tragedy is the imitation of an action that is serious and also, as having magnitude, complete in itself; in appropriate and pleasurable language;...in a dramatic rather than narrative form; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish a catharsis of these emotions.”
Basically, a tragedy must contain a serious issue with a great magnitude and stay on the issue. DON'T STRAY AWAY
A chorus to comment, a good rhythm and harmony to what is sung
MUST be dramatized or acted out
Audience must feel sorry for tragic hero and afraid to the destructive end.
A release of tension or catharsis, or reach a moment to where the audience can release its tension and feelings once the tragic hero falls.
oStep by Step, guide to Application and Recognition (Don’t Trip)
Step I. Identify all the elements characterized by Aristotle.
(Hint: if this means you don't know what are the elements, please review the previous slides)
Step II. Decide whether or not it is an Aristotelian Tragedy
(Hint: if you can find all the elements, then most likely it IS an Aristotelian Tragedy)
Step III. the Example
Death of a Salesman is of crucial importance to literature because it once again raises the question whether tragedy is possible with a common hero. The Aristotelian concept of tragedy, which dominated dramatic literature until the nineteenth century, insists that only characters of noble birth or soul can be tragic heroes. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, however, an increasing number of plays with tragic endings were written about common people. In 1949, concurrent with his play’s appearance on Broadway, Miller published a defense of the play as a genuine tragedy in the essay “Tragedy and the Common Man,” in which he argued that all that is required for tragic stature is a hero willing to “lay down his life” to secure “his ’rightful’ position in his society.”
•Other Examples
Aspects of Aristotle's theory of a tragedy can be found in more modern works.
oMcTeague(1899) ,by Frank Norris, follows the life of a dentist who gets consumed by greed driven by(peripeteia), which leads to him killing his loved ones and his friends
oOthello, by William Shakespeare represents the qualities of an Aristotelian tragedy as the main character, Othello, succumbs to jealousy and lies including a complex plot, with recognition (anagnorisis) and a reversal of roles.


Chapter 3: Aristotelian Tragedy Elements in Hamlet
The classic masterpiece Hamlet, by William Shakespeare, demonstrates many Aristotelian elements of tragedy. According to Aristotle a good tragic drama has a set format and defining characteristics. Not only is the play aesthetically pleasing and organized it also evokes strong emotion and embraces human short-comings. From basic plot and character elements to katharsis and the Prince Hamlet's tragic flaw, Shakespeare creates what Aristotle would define as a true tragedy.
Without a doubt, Shakespeare is a great literary figure of his age and his contribution to literary terms is excellent and unforgettable. What he incorporates with Aristotle’s character description, including a hamartia or a tragic flaw is applied in his story of Hamlet. Hamlet, who is a prince of Denmark, is a very well educated and sympathetic person. In an Aristotelian tragedy, the characters drive the plot as their motives and actions cause the plot to alter. Hamlet’s childish nature, grief, and most of all “pride” represent his errors, or his tragic flaw, and become his undoing. His grief is his hasty marriage of his mother to his Uncle, Claudius. He hides his love for his mother and reveals his pure immaturity, which then relates to his childish nature. In addition, his pride beguiles his heroic tale as when he later wants to take revenge for the murder of his father, he is indeed, besieged by self contempt. His becoming fiery and condemning himself means to resolute to take a measurable action to avenge his father’s death. These conditions portrayed by Aristotle emulated in Hamlet, arouse pity and fear among to the audience. This is seen when Hamlet states “Thus conscience does make cowards of us all, and thus the native hue of resolution is sick lied o’er with the pale cast of thought…” (Hamlet, III, I). His pride and procrastination caused him to slow his process of avenge for his father against Claudius, which result in despair for him and inevitably, his tragic flaw is released again.
The plot element of a tragedy is referred to by Aristotle as the most important element to a tragedy. It can be seen throughout Hamlet, that its plot follows the elements Aristotle lays out for a plot to contain. In Aristotle’s definition of a tragedy, the plot must contain a beginning, middle, and an end. The beginning, which is commonly referred to as the incentive moment, spurs the cause-and-effect chain. The incentive moment in this play is seen with Hamlet’s interaction with the ghost, creating this idea for him that his father was murdered by Claudius, who took over the King position and is Hamlet’s new stepfather/uncle. In Hamlet, the middle, or climax, is discovered with Hamlet’s first attempts to discover if Claudius is guilty. This attempt consist of Hamlet putting on a play called The Murder of Ganzago, in which Hamlet stages a death similar to his father’s to “catch the conscious of the king.” (Act 3, Scene II, Line 605) Claudius reacts in a sense that gives away his innocence and proves him guilty, assuring Hamlet that he has to kill Claudius. The end, or the resolution of a story, is the effect to what the story has caused already. It is the resolution to the incentive moment created earlier and unites the story. This is seen in Hamlet at the end of the play during Hamlet’s epic battle with Laertes, which results in the death of almost everyone, including Claudius, who needed to die by Hamlet to resolve the incentive moment. Overall, Hamlet achieves these elements of a cause and effect story with a beginning, middle, and end that follows Aristotle’s ideas. The next part of plot Aristotle sees necessary is the unity of the play. Hamlet contains many subplots, which contradict the idea of Aristotle, but these subplots in the end all involve Hamlet and tie together to the resolution, creating a unitized plot for the story. This is seen with Hamlet being involved with confliction with Laertes, Ophelia, and Claudius, but in the end their conflicts among all of them come together to create the resolution of the play. Aristotle also viewed plot to contain “a serious magnitude,” which should also stay constant throughout the story. The play contains a serious magnitude throughout itself with the wishing of death by Hamlet to Claudius, and Hamlet’s actions to attempt to kill Claudius because “he hath kill’d my king and whored my mother.”(Act 5, Scene II, Line 9) The last element of plot that Aristotle explains is that the play must contain a simple or complex plot. In this case, Hamlet contains a complex plot involving “anagnorisis”, or recognition of knowledge, which creates love or hate. Hate is created through the climax of the play, when Hamlet discovers that Claudius is the murderer of his father, which leads to the catastrophe of this complex plot. Therefore, it can be seen that Aristotle’s view of plot in a tragedy is represented throughout Hamlet.
Thought, as Aristotle described it, is simply the thinking processes of the characters. Thought is what creates people, their very deepest of emotions – the soul in a sense, embodied in their deepest desires and fears. The emotions are the truest way that the audience sees a character’s personality – the barest of thoughts, to make a person appear ‘real’. Specifically in Hamlet, Shakespeare uses thought the most in the soliloquies to portray the thoughts of the characters. Hamlet, himself, has no less than seven or eight very long asides to the audience to reveal his innermost character. Hamlet is a very complex character; he feels guided by a sense of duty to his beloved and deceased father, rebellious against his Uncle and even a little bit against his mother (even though it can be shown that Hamlet has a case of Oedipus syndrome). Even his morals are controlled by his thoughts, as his conscience mind can’t perceive him killing Claudius let alone himself. It is only in the end, when the crumbling bricks of sanity have fallen that Hamlet can truly perceive how far his inner world has come to be in the outside world – in due course, he dies from the force of finally doing his appointed deed (killing Claudius and himself).
In Hamlet, melody is not apparent in a strictly musical sense, but appears more so in the characters and how they present themselves. The melody, or chorus, should be interweaved into the play, like that of an actor, and also attest to the unity of the plot. This is seen when Hamlet’s father’s ghost is seen as a main component to the chorus in Hamlet, as it provides a contrasting relief to the other characters. Mainly, the Ghost drives Hamlet throughout the plot, causing the progression of the plot. Plot events are then driven by this character who appears only a few times throughout the play to accompany Hamlet and Hamlet alone as the Ghost can not be seen by others. The progression of the plot, driven by the melody(Ghost), is seen especially when Hamlet is in the presence of his mother, where she questions his actions and his sanity(III.iv.126-155). Hamlet tends to think too much, and the chorus character is there to attempt to balance him out and provide movement, otherwise Hamlet would be doing nothing but thinking throughout the plot.
In the classical Aristotelian fashion, William Shakespeare creates a vivid tragedy in Hamlet. Using the great philosopher's theories in drama and tragedy, careful attention to literary devices and real insight into the emotional workings of human nature, Shakespeare solidifies his reputation as one of the greatest playwrights in history and propels Hamlet to a centerpiece in English-literature canon.


Works Cited Page

Aristotle's Ideas about Tragedy. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013.
Cool Hand Socrates.Griswold Jr., Charles L.. American Scholar, Spring1988, Vol. 57 Issue 2, p314, 7p. (Book Review)
McManus, Barbara F. "Outline of Aristotle's Theory of Tragedy." Outline of Aristotle's Theory of Tragedy. CLS 267 Topics Page, Nov. 1999. Web. 06 Jan. 2013
Nienhuis, Terry. "Death Of A Salesman." Masterplots, Fourth Edition (2010): 1-3. Literary Reference Center Plus. Web. 8 Jan. 2013.
Shields, Christopher. Aristotle. Publication. 1st ed. N.p.: Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University, 2008. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). 25 Sept. 2008. Web. 07 Jan. 2013. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle/>.
Smith, A. D. "Character and Intellect in Aristotle's Ethics." JSTOR. JSTOR, Summer 1996. Web. 06 Jan. 2013
Tragedy: The Basics. Rep. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2013. <http://faculty.gvsu.edu/websterm/Tragedy.htm>.
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