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Copy of Unit 4 - Musculoskeletal System - Structure, Function, Short & Long-term effects of exercise

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Adam Murray

on 20 April 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Unit 4 - Musculoskeletal System - Structure, Function, Short & Long-term effects of exercise

Unit 4 - The Sports Performer in Action
The Musculoskeletal System
& the effects of exercise
upon it

Introduction to the Skeletal System
There are 206 bones in the human body.
The skeletal system is made up of the different types of bones, long, short, flat, and irregular. Each have their own job to do and help the body to do a number of different things
The skeleton performs many functions in the body:

Shape & Size
- our skeleton determines our shape and size

- The skeleton supports the muscles and organs.

- The skeleton protects vital and delicate organs such as the brain, heart and lungs.

- the skeleton allows us to move. Muscles are attached to our bones and move them as levers.

Blood Cell Production
- blood and bone marrow are produced in the bones
There are 3 main types of joint in the body:

1) Fixed

2) Slightly moveable

3) Synovial Joints
There are also a large number of synovial joints. These are the main joint that help our body to move.

Ball & Socket Hinge

Pivot Saddle

Introduction to the Muscular System
The term muscular system describes all the muscles in the human body and how they work.

Each muscle has a job role and often is responsible for helping our body to move
Types of Muscle
All three types of muscle are important in physical activity:

muscle enables movement.

muscle is essential in maintaining body systems. It helps us move substances around the body, allowing us to keep cells supplied with oxygen and nutrients.

muscle is vital in sport because it makes the heart pump. The heart ensures that other muscles are well supplied with all the things they need to perform physical activities.

Muscles & movement
Muscles are involved in every movement in your body.

This includes the beating of your heart and the digestion of your food, as well as activities like running, jumping and lifting.

Muscle is a special type of tissue made up of fibres that contract (shorten) and relax (lengthen).
There are two types of muscle fibre:

Fast twitch
Slow twitch
How do the muscular system
& skeletal system work together
The skeletal muscles connect to the bones and work with connective tissue at the joints to allow for movement. The muscles connect to the nervous system and allow initiation of movement through nerve signals to and from the brain.

The bones and muscles are supported by connective tissue which helps to support movement. Ligaments consist of fibers that connect bone to bone. They allow movement at the joints. Tendons connect muscles to bone. Tendons are also designed to support force. Not much blood flows through either tendons or ligaments, which means they are slow to repair themselves when they get damaged

Increased production of Synovial Fluid
All freely movable joints contain a oily liquid called synovial fluid.
It prevents wear and tear on the bones, cartilage & ligaments
Increased range of joint mobility
As body temperature increases the muscles and connective tissues
get warmer.

This makes them more elastic. The warmer they get the more elastic they become and they are able to stretch further without getting damaged
Micro tears in muscle fibres
Each muscle is made up of thousands of individual fibres and as you exercise some of the muscle fibres tear. As these tears repair
the muscle grows back thicker and stronger
Encourages formation of new bone
High impact activities such as running and gymnastics can encourage new bone to form.

Bones are damaged slightly every time we do high impact exercise. When this happens small cells called osteoblasts travel from the bone marrow to the surface of the bone to create a lining.

Over time they convert into osteocytes
which become embedded in the bone
and calcify. This make the bone thicker
and stronger.
Increases metabolic activity
Different types of sport require the body to use different amounts of energy.

During moderate to high intensity exercise th body requires more fuel to supply the working muscles, so the metabolic rate increases.

After exercising at over 70% of your VO2
max for over 90min, the number of
calories your body burns increases.
This is obvious in the first 12 hours after
exercise but can last upnto 24 hours
The body adapts to training by increasing the amount of synovial fluid present in each joint. It nourishes the joint, keeps it clean and slippery, reducing the risk of damage to the cartilage, bones and ligaments.
There is also an increase in blood flow which supplies the body with more oxygenated blood. This also make movement at the joints easier.
Muscular Hypertrophy
Muscles adapt to training by increasing in size. This is
called hypertrophy.

This occurs when the muscle fibres get damaged and then grow back bigger and stronger as the muscle repairs itself.
Increased bone density
When you exercise your bones are placed under stress
and so they adapt by becoming thicker and heavier
which helps to prevent fractures.

The changes that occur are similar for both long and short-term exercise, however there is a further increase
in calcium production following
long periods of exercise.
Continual increase in the strength of
the connective tissue
The tendons and ligaments become stretched as a short
term response to exercise, but in the long term they
adapt by growing thicker and stronger.

This prevents them from tearing during activity and reduces the risk of injury
Increased stability of joints
Joints become more stable the more we exercise. They do this in 3 ways:

1) If the muscle mass around the joint increases then the joint is
supported more and becomes more mobile. For example weight bearing exercises like half squats will help muscles support the knee joint which will make it more mobile and stable.

2) Losing weight will help look after the joint because it
reduces the pressure on any joint used during exercise.

3) Regular flexibility sessions can help make connective
tissue become more elastic, which then helps joints
move more freely.
Increased thickness of hyaline cartilage
Cartilage is the material that covers the end of the
It acts as a shock absorber helping to prevent the bones being damaged and wearing away.

Over time the body adapts by increasing
the thickness of the hyaline cartilage
this then increases the protection to the
Skeletal muscles adapt
After sustained periods of exercise, the muscles in our
body adapt to the use of oxygen and become more
efficient for example at replenishing the working
muscles with freshly oxygenated blood and removing
carbon dioxide.

The capillaries also become
more efficient and can work
for longer periods of time.
Increased number of mitochondria
Most cells in the body contain mitochondria. These
are small cells that burn food to produce energy.

Exercise increases the number and size of mitochondria
making the body more able to burn calories more
Decreased risk of osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a disease characterised by loss of
calcium and bone tissue from bones, making them
brittle and more likely to break.

When we exercise the risk of losing calcium and other
tissues from bones is reduced,
making us less likely to develop
the disease.

Exercise an also build strength
and improve balance making
them less likely to fall.
Improved posture
Core muscles within the body such as the abdominals
and the muscles around the lower back area, help to stabilise the back and keep the torso upright.

Working these core muscles over a period of time when
we exercise can help to improve posture
by making the body look taller and

Having good posture can also reduce the
risk of developing sciatica which can
cause pain in the back & thigh region.
1) Make sure all the sections on each
of your worksheets is complete.

2) If all section are complete carry out the extension tasks on each one.

3) Once this is complete begin to write up you assessment to go in your folder.
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