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PROPHET MUHAMMED REACHES OUT TO ARABIA
Transcript of PROPHET MUHAMMED REACHES OUT TO ARABIA
"Have you ever fought him in wars?" Hercules questioned.
"Yes", answered Abu Sufyan
"What has been the result?" Hercules asked, getting more and more interested.
"Sometimes we have won, sometimes he", replied Abu Sufyan.
"What does he teach?" asked Hercules
"Worship One God, join no partners with Him, carry out your prayers, be chaste, speak the truth and keep union with your relatives", answered Abu Sufyan, even surprised at his own answer as it sounded like he was preaching Islam. "I have come to the conviction that this Prophet bids nothing abominable; he is neither a straying magician nor a lying soothsayer. He bears the true manifest seeds of Prophethood, and so I will consider the affair deeply." He took the parchment and ordered that it be kept in an ivory casket. He called a scribe to write the following reply in Arabic:
It is noteworthy that Muqawqas did not avail himself of this priceless opportunity and he did not embrace Islam. The presents were accepted; Maria, the first maid, stayed with the Prophet , and gave birth to his son Ibrahîm; the other Sirin, was given to Hassan bin Thabit Al-Ansari. ‘Amr: I never tell lies; moreover, our religion never allows it.
‘Abd: Has Hercules been informed of the Islamization of Negus?
‘Amr: Yes, of course.
‘Abd: How did you happen to know that?
‘Amr: Negus used to pay land tax to Hercules, but when the former embraced Islam, he swore he would discontinue that tax. When this news reached Hercules, his courtiers urged him to take action against Negus but he refused and added that he himself would do the same if he were not sparing of his kingship.
‘Abd: What does your Prophet exhort you to do?
‘Amr: He exhorts us to obey Allah, the All-Mighty, the All Glorious, be pious and maintain good ties with family kin; he forbids disobedience, aggression, adultery, wine, idolatry and devotion to the cross. When ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damari communicated the Apostolic letter to Negus, the latter took the parchment and placed it on his eye, descended to the floor, confessed his faith in Islam and wrote the following reply to the Prophet.
The Prophet [PBUH] had asked Negus to send Ja‘far and his companions, the emigrants to Abyssinia (Ethiopia), back home. They came back to see the Prophet [pbuh] in Khaibar. Negus later died in Rajab 9 A.H. shortly after Tabuk Ghazwa. The Prophet announced his death and observed prayer in absentia for him. Another king succeeded Negus to the throne and another letter was sent to him by the Prophet but whether or not he embraced Islam is still a question not answered yet. In many cases, the MESSENGERS of the PROPHET were badly treated. But the PROPHET was not worried by these setbacks. He was inviting people to the right path and a few setbacks could not deter him from propagating Islam. Conversion
Phase I: The Early CALIPHS and UMAYYADS (610-750 AD)
Phase II: The ABBASIDS (750-1258)
Phase III: Dissolution of the ABBASIDS and the emergence of the SELJUKS and OTTOMANS (950-1450)
Phase IV: OTTOMANS Empire: 13th Century - 1918
Phase V: (Post- OTTOMANS - present) ISLAM PREVAILS IN ARABIA Hercules stood up and said, "If all you said is true, then I am sure that this Prophet's Kingdom will reach here where I am standing. I was certain that a Prophet was coming, but I didn't know that he would be born in Arabia. If I were to go there, I would embrace Islam and wash the Prophet's feet with my own hands.“
This was the way in which the Prophet spread Islam. He impressed them by his truthfulness, honesty, noble character and dedication in the service of Allah. He did not compel people to accept Islam under threat of waging wars, nor did he compel people to accept Islam by the force of the sword. He fought only in defence, and only when the enemies waged war on him. "Noble", replied Abu Sufyan
"Has there been a king in his family?" Hercules asked.
"No," said Abu Sufyan
"Are the people who have accepted his religion poor or rich?", Hercules questioned again.
"They are poor", replied Abu Sufyan.
Hercules was now becoming more and more interested and he went on asking questions.
His next question was, "Are his followers on the increase or decrease?"
"Increasing", Abu Sufyan replied shortly.
"Have you known him to tell lies"? asked Hercules.
"No", admitted Abu Sufyan.
"Does he ever go against his convents?", Hercules once again asked. Inviting them to embrace Islam. Many of the letters were met with a favourable response whilst others were rejected. In many cases, the messengers of the Prophet were badly treated and abused. But the Prophet was not worried by these setbacks. He was inviting people to the right path and a few setbacks could not deter him from propagating Islam.
Abu Sufyan a leader of the tribe of Quraish and the arch enemy of the Prophet was in Constantinople on a business trip, when the Prophet's letter of invitation reached Hercules, the Byzantine emperor of Eastern Roman Empire. Hercules, at the time was in his court at Constantinople celebrating his victory over the Persians.
Hercules read the letter through an interpreter and then asked the people in his court, to find out if there was someone in the city, who knew the Prophet. Abu Sufyan with his companions was brought into the court.
The emperor asked Abu Sufyan, "What kind of family does Muhammad belong to?" Arabia, during the time of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s), was a country without any central authority. It was a country far from the civilised nations of those days.
At the time Prophet Muhammad (s) was spreading Islam; asking people to turn away from worshipping idols to worshipping Allah, the Almighty, the All-Knower, the Master.
The Prophet sent letters of invitation to Kings and Rulers of various countries in the world. THE LETTER OF INVITATION TO HERACULIUS
KING OF BYZANITE EMPIRE "There used to be someone before you who had arrogated the status of the Supreme Lord, so Allâh punished him and made an example of him in the Hereafter, and in this life; therefore, take warning and never set a bad example to others." Muqawqas answered: "We are in no position to relinquish our religion except for a better one." Hatib resumed: "We invite you to embrace Islam, which will suffice you all what you may lose. Our Prophet has called people to profess this Faith, Quraish and the Jews stood against him as bitter enemies, whereas Christians stood closest to his Call. Upon my life, Moses’s news about Christ is identical to the latter’s good tidings about the advent of Muhammad; likewise, this invitation of ours to you to embrace Islam is similar to your invitation to the people of Torah to accept the New Testament
Once a Prophet rises in a nation, he is eligible for positive response, hence you are subject to the same Divine Law. Bear in mind that we have not come to dissuade you from religion of Christ but rather bidding you to adhere to its tenets." Muqawqas meditated over the contents of the letter deeply and said: The Prophet wrote to Juraij bin Matta [Rahmat-al-lil'alameen 1/178; Dr. Hamidullah said that his name was Binyamin], called Muqawqas, vicegerent of Egypt and Alexandria saying:
Hatib bin Abi Balta‘a, who was chosen to communicate the message, requested an audience with Muqawqas before imparting the contents of the letter. He addressed Egypt’s vicegerent saying: THE LETTEROF INVITATION TO THE ARCHIBISHOP
EGYPT Now, people have chosen Islam in preference to other creeds, and have realized through their mental insight that they had been straying in darkness. None, except you, is now out of the domain of Islam, so I advise you to embrace Islam so that you can provide security to yourself and your country."
Here, he asked me to call on him the following day. The following day he showed some reluctance in receiving me but his brother, ‘Abd, interceded and I was given the chance to see him again but this time to address me in a threatening arrogant tone. However, after a private talk with his brother and reconsidering the whole situation, both brothers embraced Islam and proved to be true to Islam that had begun to make its way into this new area.
The context of this story reveals that this letter was sent at a much later date than the others, most likely after the conquest of Makkah.
Through these letters, the Prophet managed to communicate his Message to most monarchs at that time; some believed, while others remained obdurate and persisted in their disbelief. However, the idea of embracing Islam, and the advent of a new Prophet preoccupied all of them. ‘Abd: Fair words and fair beliefs are those you are calling for. I wish my brother would follow me to believe in Muhammad and profess his religion, but my brother is too sparing of his kingship to become a subordinate.
‘Amr: Should your brother surrender himself to Islam, the Prophet would give him authority over his people and take alms tax from the wealthy people to be given to the needy.
‘Abd: That is fair behaviour. But what is this alms tax you have mentioned?
‘Amr: It is a Divine injunction that alms tax be taken from thewell-to-do people who have surplus wealth and be distributed to the poor.
‘Abd: I doubt if this can work among our people.
‘Amr stayed for some days to be admitted into Jaifer’s court until he was finally granted this permit. "He asked me to hand him the letter to read it. After that he asked me how Quraish reacted and I answered that they had followed him, some out of their own freewill and others overpowered by military fighting. During his lifetime the MUSLIM UMMAH was established in ARABIA by way of their conversion or allegiance to ISLAM. In the FIRST CENTURIES conversion to ISLAM followed the rapid growth of the MUSLIM WORLD created by the conquests of the RASHIDUN and UMAYYAD CALIPHS. The Spread of ISLAM began when PROPHET MUHAMMAD (570 - 632) started preaching the revelation He claimed to have received from ALLAH at the age of 40. MUSLIMS SPREAD ISLAM TO ARABIA PROPHET MUHAMMAD REACHES OUT TO ARABIA & BEYOND Meanwhile, Sherweh, the new monarch sent a letter to Bazan confirming the news and bidding him to stop any procedures as regards the Prophet till further notice. Bazan, together with the Persians in Yemen, went into the folds of Islam, and gladly signified his adhesion to the Prophet. [Fath Al-Bari 8/127,128]. As soon as the men reached Madinah, the Prophet was informed by a Divine Revelation that Pervez, the emperor of Persia, had been murdered by his son. The Prophet disclosed to them the news and they were stunned. He added asking them to tell their new monarch that Islam would prevail everywhere and outstrip the sovereignty of Chosroes himself. They hurried back to Bazan and communicated to him what they heard. ‘Abdullah bin Hudhafa As-Sahmi was chosen to carry the letter. This envoy carried it to the king of Bahrain but we do not know as yet if the latter dispatched to Chosroes by one of his men or chose ‘Abdullah himself.
The proud monarch was enraged by the style of the letter as the name of the Prophet had been put above his own name. He tore the letter into shreds and forthwith dictated a command to his viceroy in Yemen to send a couple of troopers to arrest the Prophet and bring him to his presence. The governor, Bazan by name, immediately sent two men to Madinah for the purpose. THE LETTER OF INVITATION TO KHUSROE,
THE KING OF PERSIA ‘Abd: When did you embrace Islam?
‘Amr: When I was at Negus’s court. By the way, the latter did also enter into the fold of Islam.
‘Abd: What was his people’s reaction?
‘Amr: They approved of him and followed his steps.
‘Abd: The bishops and monks? ‘Amr: They did the same.
‘Abd: Beware ‘Amr of lying for this soon betrays man ‘Abd: O ‘Amr! You come from a noble family, but first of all, tell me what was your father’s attitude concerning this Faith? You know, we used to follow his steps.
‘Amr: Death overtook him before believing in Muhammad’s mission; I wish now he had embraced Islam and been truthful to it before his death. I myself had adopted the same attitude until Allah guided me towards Islam ‘Abd: You have to see my brother and read to him the letter you are carrying. He is my senior in both age and kingship. Incidentally, what is the purport of your mission?
‘Amr: The Prophet calls upon you to believe in Allâh Alone with no associate, discard any other deities and testify to the slavehood and Messengership of Muhammad. ‘Amr bin Al-’As, who was chosen to carry the letter, narrated the following story that happened before he was admitted into the audience of Jayfer.
"When I arrived in ‘Oman I contacted ‘Abd, who was known to be more mild-tempered than his brother:
‘Amr: I am the messenger of Allâh’s Prophet coming to see both, you and your brother. THE LETTER OF INVITATION TO ISLAM FOR JAYFAR,
THE KING OF OMAN I call you unto the fold of Islam; if you embrace Islam, you will find safety,Should you reject this invitation, then you will be held responsible for all the evils of the Christians of your people."
Dr. Hameedullah (Paris), a reliable verifier, has adduced a version of the above letter disclosed only a short time ago and identical to Ibn Al-Qaiyim’s narration. Dr. Hameedullah exerted painstaking effort and used all means of modern technology to verify the text of the letter. Al-Baihaqi, on the authority of Ibn Ishaq, gave the following narration of the Prophet’s letter sent to Negus:
"This letter is sent from Muhammad, the Prophet to Negus Al Ashama, the king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
Peace be upon him who follows true guidance and believes in Allâh and His Messenger. I bear witness that there is no god but Allâh Alone with no associate, He has taken neither a wife nor a son, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. Wording of the letter rather indicates that it was sent to that king when Ja‘far and his companions emigrated to Abyssinia during the Makkan period. One of its sentences read "I have dispatched my cousin, Ja‘far (may Allâh be pleased with him) with a group of Muslims, to you. Do be generous towards them and give up haughtiness Negus, king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), his name was Ashama bin Al Abjar, received the Prophet’s message, dispatched by Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damari, which At-Tabari referred to, either late in the Sixth year or early in the seventh year A.H. Deep scrutiny into the letter shows that it was not the one sent after Al-Hudaybiyah event. THE LETTER OF INVITATION TO NEGUS, THE KING OF ABYSSINIA The PROPHET sent letters of invitation to Kings and Rulers of various countries in the world, inviting them to embrace ISLAM. Many of the letters were met with a favorable response whilst others were rejected. THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD INVITES OTHER NATIONS TO ISLAM